Post 2 need 500 word response with two cited sources to this post
A pretty complex objective for this week. Let this student begin from the later part and work up. In protecting the homeland, public and private responsibilities intersect. The vast majority of the nation’s critical infrastructure is privately owned. Given the significance of the private sector in homeland security settings, structuring incentives properly is critical. The country’s national security and standard of living depend on the reliable functioning of our critical infrastructure. The local governments must do a great deal more to prepare for the consequence management role. In particular, they must also pay a great deal of attention to prevention efforts. Critical infrastructure includes a vast array of assets, networks, and systems such as food, water, energy, communications, transportation, banking, and more, and most of these aspects of critical infrastructure are within the domain of the local governments. One of the critical issues that private sector has to deal with security clearance for private sector staff members. Protecting Critical Infrastructure and key resources requires cooperation between government and private industry. It is the policy of the DHS to share pertinent information regarding Critical Infrastructure with the private sector, which at times may include classified information. A private sector official must be cleared for a federal security clearance prior to receiving classified information from the government. The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (hereinafter referred to as the “Program”) was developed to provide a means to facilitate the processing of security clearance applications for private sector partners (DHS 2011). Market/trade forces currently provide some incentive to firms to avoid the direct financial losses associated with a terrorist attack on their facilities or operations. In general, however, that incentive is not compelling enough to encourage the appropriate level of security—and should therefore be supplemented with stronger market-based incentives in several sectors. As the chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has put it in a different context: “We cannot simply let markets work. We must make markets work.” Even though the protecting the private sector is a shared responsibility; it is also possible, at least in theory, for private firms to invest too much in anti-terrorism security. In particular, visible security measures (such as more uniformed guards) undertaken by one firm may merely displace terrorist attacks onto other firms, without significantly affecting the overall probability of an attack (Orszag 2011)
At the bottom local level the resources are most stretched since the first responders do surge feom the local levels. The first responders could lack at the following resources: training, having adequate tools (meaning equipment) in dealing with any incident that has direct relationship with state or Federal entities. Although in one specific sector the local and even at stet level in case of natural or human disaster; FEMA does participate actively but factor of losing critical time falls in very quickly. First responders are often the primary line of defense for the American communities, responding to an evolving spectrum of natural and man-made threats and disasters. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) works closely with first responders across jurisdictions and disciplines to improve their safety and effectiveness. The responsibility of DHS and even FEMA is to ensure that both State and Local first responders are at par with o capabilities that: This includes but not limited to o develop capabilities that would make make first responders safer: Improve communication tool security and effectiveness Enhance data and information sharing during daily, emergency or joint operations
Promote and sustain partnerships with responders and responder organizations across the nation at all levelselp investigate cybercrime and cases involving digital evidence
Secure 911 emergency call systems from cyber attacks
There are some areas where there is even some degree of partnership p between two federal, but the final out ends up at the window of the officer who has all the authority to conclude the matter promptly. The subject matter of visa is one matter that this student has gone through and ended up miserable state. This student applied for permission for his fiancé went through all of the processes a petition took its required process security check at USCIS and national visa center. The petition ended up at the window of U.S State Department officer at the visa window at the local embassy. It was application rejected without any reason given. This student backtracked to the process to the USCIS, and National visa center their response was everything right on our end it is visa officer who is creating problems. Beside wastage of time and funds, the process has to start all over. Here is a classic real-life example when one federal agency denies permission without any reasons, thus, overloading the system for all the unnecessary reasons.
DHS, first responders https://www.dhs.gov/science-and-technology/first-responders
Peter R. Orszag, Homeland Security and the Private Sector, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/20031119-1.pdf
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