need help in identifying plagiarism

I need help with this. I have taken the test many times and cannot seem to pass it. Time limit is 40mins.

Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

We “need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories….” Such theories will “help educators and trainers to meet those needs … that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity.”

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

If learners are new to critique, we see anonymity as a scaffold to generating critical feedback. Learners can practice giving feedback knowing they are not vulnerable to social repercussions. Less than perfect expressions, unwarranted negative reactions, and fruitless ideas are bound to be part of novice feedback, but teachers hope to create learning configurations that support both the giver and the receiver of feedback, especially if the commenters are novices.

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

If providing peer feedback is a skill to be learned then perhaps it is advisable to give learners opportunities to practice giving feedback knowing they are not vulnerable to social repercussions. In this way, anonymity can act “as a scaffold to generating critical feedback” (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010, p. 104).

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated – and interesting – is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/
fastback/fastback326.html#nature

Frick (1991) claims that systems, including both business systems, and educational systems, are actually very simple. The main idea is that systems “have parts that fit together to make a whole” (The nature of systems in education section, para. 1). What is further interesting to Frick is how those parts are connected together.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/
fastback/fastback326.html#nature

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated – and interesting – is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

The fundamental idea of systems, such as corporations and schools, is actually very simple. Each system has components which interact. What is important is how those components are connected together.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

A communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another.The nature of the information-exchange relationship between a pair of individuals determines the conditions under which a source will or will not transmit the innovation to the receiver and the effect of such a transfer.

References:
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Rogers places great importance on the sharing of information about an innovation. He defines a communication channel as “the means by which messages get from one individual to another” (p. 18). He describes two general media channels of communication: mass media and interpersonal; and two scopes of channels: localite and cosmopolite.

References:
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Instructional designers typically employ models to guide their day-to-day work. Due to the increased practice of the systematic design of instruction in a growing number of settings, available models become more and more proliferated, focusing on particular types and contexts of learning, particular groups of learners or designers, or particular instructional units (either whole curricula or individual modules or lessons.)

The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes.

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

“The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes” (van Merriënboer, 1997, p. 2). Process models proliferate because more and more designers generate models that focus on specific contexts, learners, or even units of instruction, according to van Merriënboer.

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

But what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education?While the question of how global processes influence all aspects of education (and who controls these forces) is multidimensional and not completely testable, there appear to be some theories of globalization as it relates to education that can be empirically examined.

References:
Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

The authors are not alone in asking “what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education?” (p. 138). In fact, this same question provides the basis for the discussion that follows.

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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

While solitary negative reactions or unjustified suggestions for change have the potential to dissipate discourse rather than build it, the pattern analysis shows that the anonymous condition seemed to provide a safe explorative space for learners to try out more reasons for their multiple solutions. Teachers will rarely give anonymous feedback, but the experience of giving anonymous feedback may open a social space where learners can try out the reasons for their suggestions.

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

It is clear that “solitary negative reactions or unjustified suggestions for change have the potential to dissipate discourse” (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010, p. 103). However, anonymity may give learners a context in which they can try providing solutions that are more thoroughly supported by an accompanying rational (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010). Clearly, the positive and negative consequences that anonymity has on peer feedback must be considered.

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of “a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes” (Driscoll, 2000). Therefore, since “learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning” (Gredler, 2001).

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Other major issues involve the accepted methods by which fidelity is measured. There are two major methods described in the literature for fidelity measurement. The first is through mathematical measurement that calculates the number of identical elements shared between the real world and the simulation; the greater the number of shared identical elements, the higher the simulation fidelity. A second method to measure fidelity is through a trainees’ performance matrix.

References:
Liu, D., Blickensderfer, E. L., Macchiarella, N. D., & Vincenzi, D. A. (2009). Simulation fidelity. In D. A. Vincenzi, J. A. Wise, M. Mouloua & P. A. Hancock (Eds.), Humanfactors in simulation and training (pp. 61-73). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Liu et al. (2009) identified two major methods for measuring fidelity. The first is a mathematical (objective) method that requires counting “the number of identical elements shared between the real world and the simulation; the greater the number of shared identical elements, the higher the simulation fidelity” (p. 62). The second method involves a performance matrix that compares a human’s performance in the simulation with that person’s real-world performance, producing an indirect measure of fidelity.

References:
Liu, D., Blickensderfer, E. L., Macchiarella, N. D., & Vincenzi, D. A. (2009). Simulation fidelity. In D. A. Vincenzi, J. A. Wise, M. Mouloua & P. A. Hancock (Eds.), Humanfactors in simulation and training (pp. 61-73). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

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