LABOR MARKET REPORT Essay Dissertation Help

INSTRUCTIONS
Complete the following ten questions. Turn in a paper copy of
your work at the beginning of class on the due date (see the
syllabus). Use a solitary staple in the upper right corner to
attach multiple pieces of paper together. Please include your
name on your report.
You may work in pairs if you so choose1
. If you do, I highly
suggest working together, rather than splitting up the workload
and working separately.
Please type and double-space your commentary. Any word count
guides are suggestions. You may go under or over at times.
However, if you find that you consistently have little to write,
you should think more deeply about the data.
All graphs and tables should be clear, legible, and
straightforward. Think about the design of your graphs and
tables before you create them. Copy-pasting from the IMPUS
Online Analysis printout is poor form.
ACCESSING THE DATA
You will be using data from the U.S. Current Population Survey
(CPS) provided through the Integrated Public Use Microdata
Series (IPUMS) from the Minnesota Population Center. You may
access the data at no cost at the following website:
https://cps.ipums.org/cps/index.shtml
You need to create an account to access the data. Please
remember your login credentials, as I have no access to them.
1 “Pairs” implies two people. Working in groups of more than two or
collaborating with other groups constitutes academic misconduct.
Page 2 of 15
After you have created an account, you may log in and use the
online data analysis tool at the following link:
https://cps.ipums.org/cps/sda.shtml
DOCUMENTATION
Please read all documentation before beginning.
Video tutorial: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4_YY2xr3Lc
IPUMS FAQ: https://cps.ipums.org/cps-action/faq
Online Data Analysis Instructions:
https://cps.ipums.org/cps/resources/sda/sdainstructions.pdf
Online Help for Data Analysis:
https://sda.cps.ipums.org/helpfiles/helpan.htm
Recoding Instructions (very important):
https://sda.cps.ipums.org/helpfiles/helpan.htm#irecode
CPS Variables Codebook (very important)
https://sda.cps.ipums.org/all_march_samples/Doc/nes.htm
BUSINESS CYCLES
It might be helpful to refer to business cycles in your
commentaries. The NBER list of business cycle dates is located
here:
http://www.nber.org/cycles.html

EARNINGS
The variable EARNWEEK measures earnings per week in nominal
dollars. It takes a value of 9998 or 9999 if the person is
missing earnings data or not in the universe (i.e. not in the
Earner Study). If you do not filter out these values, your
estimates will have a comically large upward bias. Always think
about whether your estimates make sense before believing them.
Note: EARNWEEK is for the main job the respondent held in the
previous year.
INFLATION
If you are comparing dollar amounts over time, you must adjust
for inflation using the CPI-Urban, 1999 base year. See the
following for details and the index:
https://cps.ipums.org/cps/cpi99.shtml
Page 3 of 15
WEIGHTING
For most of the analyses, the appropriate weight to use is
WTSUPP. However, for variables from the Earner Study (EARNWEEK,
HOURWAGE, PAIDHOUR, UNION, UHRSWORK, WKSWORKORH, ELIGORG, and
OTPAY), you must use EARNWT as your weight.

FRUSTRATION
Learning a new system may be challenging and frustrating.
However, working through challenges fosters meaningful human
capital development. Employers value employees who can learn
and develop new skills themselves in a technologically-rich
environment.
GROUP DEFINITIONS
When the questions below refer to groups, they use the following
definitions. Because many of these definitions are different
than the categories used in variables in the IPUMS database, you
will need to do some recoding in your analyses.
Note: The CPS has changed over the years; thus, not all
variables are available for the entire time-span.
Age Groups, 1962-2016
o 18 – 24 year olds
o 25 – 34 year olds
o 35 – 44 year olds
o 45 – 54 year olds
o 55 – 64 year olds
Educational Attainment Groups, 1962-2016
o Less than high school (include no schooling, grades 1 – 11,
12th grade no diploma)
o High school only (include high school diploma, high school
equivalent, or high school diploma unclear)
o Some college (include 1 – 3 years of college no degree,
Associate’s degree, occupational/vocational program)
o College (include 4 years of college or Bachelor’s degree)
o Postgraduate (include 5-6 years of college, Master’s
degree, Professional degree, Doctoral degree)
Employment Status, 1962-2016
o Employed (include at work, has a job not at work last week)
o Unemployed (include unemployed of any type)
o Not In Labor Force (include not in the labor force of any
type)
Page 4 of 15
Hispanic Ethnicity Groups, 1971-2016
o Not Hispanic
o Hispanic (include all Hispanic national origin groups)
Note: Hispanic is an ethnicity, not a race. Hence, a person of
any race may identify as Hispanic. The CPS redefined Hispanic
coding in 1976.
Labor Force Status, 1962-2016
o Labor Force Participant (include at work, has a job not at
work last week, or unemployed of any type)
o Not in Labor Force (include not in the labor force of any
type)
Racial Groups, 1962-2016
o White
o Black
o Asian (include Asian or Pacific Islander)
o Other Races (include American Indian, biracial, multiracial
groups)
Note: The CPS only began to consider the Asian group separately
from “other races” in the mid-1980s. Because of the sample size
of the CPS, decomposing the “other races” category into larger
groups would result in very noisy estimates.
Marital Status Groups, 1962-2016
o Married (include spouse present and absent)
o Divorced/Separated (include separated, divorced)
o Single (include widowed, never married, single)
Nativity Groups, 1994-2016
o Native-born, native parents
o Native-born, immigrant parent (include native born with at
least one foreign-born parent)
o Foreign-born
Region, 1962-2016
o Northeast Region (include New England and Middle Atlantic
divisions)
o Midwest Region (include (East North Central and West North
Central divisions)
o South Region (include South Atlantic, East South Central,
and West South Central divisions)
o West Region (include Mountain and Pacific division)
Sex, 1962-2016
o Male
o Female
Page 5 of 15
Union Status, 1990-2016
o Non-union (include not a member, not covered by a union
contract)
o Union Coverage (include member of a labor union, non-member
but covered by a union contract)
Veteran Status, 1964-2016
o Veteran
o Non-veteran
MAKING GRAPHS AND TABLES IN EXCEL
There are plenty of online tutorials for making graphs and
tables of all sorts in Excel. Please refer to the Internet
search engine of your choice for information.
HAVE FUN!
Page 6 of 15
QUESTION 1
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKING-AGE POPULATION
Analysis: Frequencies
Restrictions: Age 18-64
How have the characteristics of the American working-age
population changed since the 1960s? Make the following graphs
to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any
noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few
paragraphs totaling 300 words.
GRAPH 1A: AGE, 1962-2016
Graph the relative frequencies of age groups over time
GRAPH 1B: RACE, 1962-2016
Graph the relative frequencies of racial groups over time
GRAPH 1C: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 1962-2016
Graph the relative frequencies of educational attainment groups
over time
GRAPH 1D: NATIONAL ORIGIN, 1994-2016
Graph the relative frequencies of national origin groups over
time
GRAPH 1E: HISPANIC ETHNICITY, 1971-2016
Graph the relative frequency of Hispanic ethnicity over time
GRAPH 1F: MARITAL STATUS, 1962-2016
Graph the relative frequencies of marital status groups over
time
GRAPH 1G: REGION, 1962-2016
Graph the relative frequencies of regional groups over time
GRAPH 1H: VETERAN STATUS, 1964-2016
Graph the relative frequency of veteran status over time
Page 7 of 15
QUESTION 2
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OVER TIME
Analysis: Frequencies
Restrictions: Age 18-64, Civilian (not in the Armed Services)
How has labor force participation changed for various groups
changed since the 1960s? Make the following graphs to
illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any
noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few
paragraphs totaling 300 words.
GRAPH 2A: MALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON AGE,
MALES, 1962-2016
Graph the labor force participation rates for males conditional
on age group over time
GRAPH 2B: FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON AGE,
1962-2016
Graph the labor force participation rates for females
conditional on age group over time
GRAPH 2C: MALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON RACE,
1962-2016
Graph the labor force participation rates for males conditional
on racial group over time
GRAPH 2D: FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON RACE,
1962-2016
Graph the labor force participation rates for females
conditional on racial group over time
GRAPH 2E: MALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON MARITAL
STATUS, 1962-2016
Graph the labor force participation rates for males conditional
on marital status group over time
GRAPH 2F: FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON
MARITAL STATUS, 1962-2016
Graph the labor force participation rates for females
conditional on marital status group over time
Page 8 of 15

QUESTION 3
CIVILIAN UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OVER TIME
Analysis: Frequencies
Restrictions: Age 18-64, Labor Force Participant2
, Civilian (not
in the Armed Services)
How has the unemployment rate changed for various groups since
the 1960s? Make the following graphs to illustrate. Summarize
your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor
economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words.
GRAPH 3A: MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON AGE, 1962-2016
Graph the unemployment rate for males conditional on age group
over time
GRAPH 3B: FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON AGE, 1962-2016
Graph the unemployment rate for females conditional on age group
over time
GRAPH 3C: MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1962-2016
Graph the unemployment rate for males conditional on racial
group over time
GRAPH 3D: FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1962-
2016
Graph the unemployment rate for females conditional on racial
group over time
2 Reminder: the unemployment rate has the labor force in the denominator.
Page 9 of 15

QUESTION 4
REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OVER TIME, FULL-TIME WORKERS
Analysis: Means
Restrictions: Age 18-64, Full-time worker (35+ usual hours per
week)
How have real weekly earnings for various groups changed since
1990? Make the following graphs to illustrate. Summarize your
findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor
economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words.
GRAPH 4A: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON EDUCATIONAL
ATTAINMENT, 1990-2016
Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers
conditional on educational attainment
GRAPH 4B: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1990-2016
Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers
conditional on racial group
GRAPH 4C: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON SEX, 1990-2016
Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers
conditional on sex
GRAPH 4D: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON UNION COVERAGE,
1990-2016
Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers
conditional on union coverage
GRAPH 4E: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON REGION, 1990-2016
Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers
conditional on region
Page 10 of 15

QUESTION 5
CHARACTERISTICS, EMPLOYED WORKERS, 1965-2016
Analysis: Frequencies
Restrictions: Age 18-64, employed, certain years
How have the characteristics of employed workers changed from
1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, to 2016? Make the following table to
illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any
noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few
paragraphs totaling 300 words.
TABLE 5A: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS, 1964-2016
Columns: years 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2016
Rows:
o Age group relative frequencies
o Educational attainment group relative frequencies
o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency (1995, 2016 only)
o Racial group relative frequencies
o Marital status relative frequencies
o Nativity group relative frequencies (1995, 2016 only)
o Region group relative frequencies
o Sex relative frequencies
o Union status relative frequencies (1995, 2016 only)
o Veteran status relative frequencies
Page 11 of 15
QUESTION 6
CHARACTERISTICS, 2016
Analysis: Frequencies
Restrictions: Age 18-64
How did the characteristics of residents differ in
characteristics between various race and sex groups in 2016?
How did the characteristics of employed workers differ in
characteristics between various race and sex groups in 2016?
Make the following tables to illustrate. Summarize your
findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor
economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words.
TABLE 6A: CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS, 2016
Columns: White males, White females, Black males, Black females,
Asian males, Asian females, Other males, Other females
Rows:
o Age group relative frequencies
o Educational attainment group relative frequencies
o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency
o Labor force participation relative frequency
o Marital status relative frequencies
o Nativity group relative frequencies
o Region relative frequencies
o Veteran status relative frequencies
TABLE 6B: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS, 2016
Additional restriction: Employed workers only
Columns: White males, White females, Black males, Black females,
Asian males, Asian females, Other males, Other females
Rows:
o Age group relative frequencies
o Educational attainment group relative frequencies
o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency
o Marital status relative frequencies
o Nativity group relative frequencies
o Region relative frequencies
o Union status relative frequencies
o Veteran status relative frequencies
Page 12 of 15

QUESTION 7
NOMINAL WEEKLY EARNINGS, EMPLOYED WORKERS, 2016
Analysis: Means
Restrictions: Age 18-64, employed
How did mean nominal weekly earnings of employed workers differ
between various race and sex groups conditional on various
characteristics in 2016? Make the following tables to
illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any
noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few
paragraphs totaling 600 words.
TABLE 7A: WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY RACE/SEX, 2016
Columns: Males, Females
Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column
group conditional on characteristics):
o Racial group
TABLE 7B: WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY SEX AND
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 2016
Columns: Males, Females
Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column
group conditional on characteristics):
o Educational attainment group
TABLE 7C: WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY RACE AND
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 2016
Columns: Whites, Blacks, Asians, Other
Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column
group conditional on characteristics):
o Educational attainment group
TABLE 7D: WEEKLY EARNIGNS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY SEX AND VETERAN
STATUS, 2016
Columns: Males, Females
Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column
group conditional on characteristics):
o Veteran status group
TABLE 7E: WEEKLY EARNIGNS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY EDUCAITONAL
ATTAINMENT AND UNION STATUS, 2016
Columns: Union, Nonunion
Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column
group conditional on characteristics):
o Educational attainment group
Page 13 of 15
QUESTION 8
CHARACTERISTICS AND EARNINGS BY NATIVITY, 2016
Analysis: Frequencies, Means
Restrictions: Age 18-64
How did the characteristics and earnings of residents differ in
between various nativity groups in 2016? Make the following
tables to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on
any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few
paragraphs totaling 300 words.
TABLE 8A: CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS BY NATIVITY, 2016
Columns: Native-born, Native-parents; Native-born, immigrant
parent; Foreign-born
Rows:
o Age group relative frequencies
o Educational attainment group relative frequencies
o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency
o Labor force participation relative frequency
o Marital status relative frequencies
o Nativity group relative frequencies
o Racial group relative frequencies
o Region relative frequencies
o Veteran status relative frequencies
TABLE 8B: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY NATIVITY, 2016
Additional restriction: Employed workers only
Columns: Native-born, Native-parents; Native-born, immigrant
parent; Foreign-born
Rows:
o Age group relative frequencies
o Educational attainment group relative frequencies
o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency
o Marital status relative frequencies
o Racial group relative frequencies
o Region relative frequencies
o Union status relative frequencies
o Veteran status relative frequencies
TABLE 8C: MEAN NOMINAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY
NATIVITY AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 2016
Additional restriction: Employed workers only
Columns: Native-born, Native-parents; Native-born, immigrant
parent; Foreign-born
Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column
group conditional on characteristics):
o Educational attainment group
Page 14 of 15
QUESTION 9
CHARACTERISTICS BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS, 2016
Analysis: Frequencies
Restrictions: Age 18-64
How did the characteristics of employed workers differ from
those of unemployed workers and labor market non-participants in
2016? Make the following table to illustrate. Summarize your
findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor
economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words.
TABLE 9A: CHARACTERISTICS BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS, 2016
Columns: Employed, Unemployed, Not in the Labor Force
Rows:
o Age group relative frequencies
o Educational attainment group relative frequencies
o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency
o Marital status relative frequencies
o Nativity group relative frequencies
o Racial group relative frequencies
o Region relative frequencies
o Veteran status relative frequencies
Page 15 of 15

QUESTION 10
CHOOSE YOUR OWN QUESTION
Produce a novel, salient question from your own curiosity about
the U.S. labor force. Answer your question with an IMPUS CPS
online analysis. If you cannot answer your question with the
IPUMS CPS data, then choose another question.
Illustrate with at least one graph or table. Motive your
question, summarize your findings, and comment on any noteworthy
trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs
totaling 300 words.

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