Introduction to Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge. It is located in Istanbul, Turkey. When it was built it was the 5thlongest bridge in the world but now it is at 19th rank. This bridge was completed in 1988.The name was given to this bridge after 15th century on the name of conqueror Ottoman Sultan Mehmet who was famous due to his win against Byzantine capital in 1453. It carries Asian Highway 1, Asian Highway 5, European route E80 and Otoyol 2 highways(Brownjohn, Dumanoglu, & Severn, 2009).

This bridge exists between the Kavacik (Asian side) and Hisarustu (European side). It has a specialty that it is made of steel pylons and vertical hangers. So that is why it is called as gravity- anchored suspension bridge. It has 1510meters long width of 39 meters. The distance between the towers (which are main span) is 1090 meters and the height of 105 meters. it has 64 meters clearance from the sea level.

Body and Evolution

Structure of the bridge:

This bridge is designed by Freeman Fox & his partners and BOTEKBosphorus technical corporation. This company has also designed the first Bosphorus Bridge. It is an independent consulting firm that provides multi-disciplinary Civil Engineering service. It was established in 1975, that gained very extensive experiences by most of its projects regarding quality, design, supervision, cost and scheduling in the fields of bridges, environmental engineering, motorways, tunnels, railways, industrial facilities, residential buildings and many others, which are awarded by municipalities, governments and other private enterprises(Picozzi et al., 2010).

Many companies like (Mitsubishi heavy industries, IHI corporation, one Italian firm Impregilo and one Turkish company SFTA has jointly done the construction work of this bridge. The bridge was fully completed on July, 3 1988. Prime Minister TurgutOzal has inaugurated it by driving his official car as becoming a first driver of this bridge. The cost if this bridge is SU$ 130 million.

Daily Transportation:

This bridge is located on Trans-European motorway between Ankara and Edirne. This highway bridge has four lanes for traffic and it also has one emergency lane in case of emergency in each direction of the bridge.On the weekday morning, Commercial traffic mostly flows from westbound to the European part, so it can be said that five of the eight lanes move towards westbound and three lanes move towards eastbound.

In contrast with weekday evenings, five of the eight lanes move towards eastbound and rest of the three move in the westbound(Apaydin, 2002). If we talk about the pedestrians they are not allowed to travel on the bridge. Now a day, almost 150,000 vehicles pass daily in both of directions; which includes 65 % automobiles.

Collection of Toll payment:

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is a toll bridge. It has a specific payment mode which only for the passangers who travelled from Europe to Asia and there is no payment for the passengers who travelled from Asia to Europe. This is rule is also applicable on first Bosphorus Bridge. But the important thing is that since 2008 to up till now the payment for toll is not made in cash. There is a special electronic method of being collecting the payments through remote payment system. In spite of thatOGS, contactless smart sticker which is also known as HGS system is in use(Ubertini, 2010). The HGS sticker and OGS device can also be obtained at different stations before reaching the bridges and highways. So, the rule of deducting the payment from Europe to Asia is implemented on the both bridges (first & second Bosphorus Bridge).

GPS Monitoring of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge:

The second suspension bridge that connects Asia to Europe is called Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. This bridge is monitored through by using the GPS technique. The specialty of this system is that it takes an observation in 0.1 second interval that are recorded for weeks.This system also collects some other data like the weather conditions and information about traffic volume as well. At the first step a time series of that respective point is taken which is constructed and combines the data of all information like time, weather conditions and traffic volume.

Then after that a single comparison of each observation of the days was investigated(Gunaydin, Adanur, Altunisik, & Sevim, 2012). Therefore, monitoring is the best tool of big engineering structures like highways and bridges which also informs about major disasters management and risk analysis and it is very helpful in keeping the lives safe of the travelers.

An artificial methodology was also adopted that belongs to soft computing methods as a predictor of the earthquakes. The need of this technology was raised after the 17th August earthquake in North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) since the new earthquakes were expected. So, this technology implemented on the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge was considered as an efficient for complex behaviors of the objects that causes factors specifically in case of continuous monitoring system(Dost, Apayd?n, Dedeo?lu, MacKenzie, & Akkol, 2013).

 

Wireless Technologies used in Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge:

With the fast improvements in the telecommunication that decrease the communication costs and provides convenient communication is quite famous. In this work, design of the low cost sensing unit able the monitoring system in collecting, storing, analyzing, communicating and estimating the parameters.

Suitability of the network of this low cost sensing unit is through wireless instruments which monitors the dynamic properties and vibration characteristics during the ambient vibration recording field test on the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey(Picozzi, et al., 2010).The main advantage of using this wireless sensing unit is decentralization of the data analysis, decrease in the installation cost and possibilities that were considered fruitful as functional capabilities with the exploitation at the same time and place of different sensors.

Seismic Analysis of the Faith Sultan Mehmet Bridge:

Based on the separate analysis of the asynchronous response of bridge regarding earthquake predictions and free vibration data, the third from the three long and modern long bridges of Europe it was investigated and reviewed that there is a strong relationship between the seismic technology and prediction of the earthquake.The main conclusion of the study is that as the seismic response is a valid consideration but, some asynchronous elements must also begiven a proper attention in this regard(Ubertini, 2010).

 

 

Conclusion

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge. It is located in Istanbul, Turkey. This bridge was completed in 1988. It has 1510meter long width of 39 m. the distance between the towers (which are main span) is 1090 m and the height of 105 m. it has 64 m clearance from the sea level. Many analyses have been made regarding the monitoring system of the bridge which includes GPS monitoring system, wireless system and seismic analysis.

All these analysis were conducted about to know that how these systems manage and control the monitoring systems. All the analysis suggests that monitoring system is quite efficient and working properly in managing the traffic. The cost of this bridge is SU$ 130 million. Now days, almost 150,000 vehicles pass daily in both of directions; which includes 65 % automobiles. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is a toll bridge. It has a specific payment mode which only for the pass angers who travelled from Europe to Asia and there is no payment for the passengers who travelled from Asia to Europe.

References:

  1. Apaydin, N. (2002). Seismic analysis of Fatih Sultan Mehmet suspension bridge. D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.
  2. Brownjohn, J., Dumanoglu, A., & Severn, R. (2009). Ambient vibration survey of the Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Second Bosporus) suspension bridge. Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics, 21(10), 907-924.
  3. Dost, Y., Apayd?n, N., Dedeo?lu, E., MacKenzie, D., & Akkol, O. (2013). Non-destructive testing of Bosphorus bridges Nondestructive Testing of Materials and Structures (pp. 819-825): Springer.
  4. Gunaydin, M., Adanur, S., Altunisik, A. C., & Sevim, B. (2012). Construction stage analysis of fatih sultan mehmet suspension bridge. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 42(4), 489-505.
  5. Picozzi, M., Milkereit, C., Zulfikar, C., Fleming, K., Ditommaso, R., Erdik, M., . . . Özel, O. (2010). Wireless technologies for the monitoring of strategic civil infrastructures: an ambient vibration test on the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 8(3), 671-691.
  6. Ubertini, F. (2010). Prevention of suspension bridge flutter using multiple tuned mass dampers. Wind and Structures, 13(3), 235-256.

 

Appendix

An Arial View of bridge:

 
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