introduction to biology

Questions 1–8: Answer the following essay questions in a short paragraph. Each question is worth four points.

  1. Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection, and provide an example of each.
  2. Many pathogenic bacteria species are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Explain how such adaptations can develop through the process of natural selection. (Hint: Relate

this example to the conditions that are necessary for natural selection to occur.)

  1. What are the major evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups, specifically those that allowed for the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life?
  2. Providing examples, explain how sexual reproduction in plants has evolved to become less dependent on water.
  3. Explain how human activities can cause an imbalance in biogeochemical cycling and lead to problems such as cultural eutrophication and fish kills.
  4. Compare and contrast the traits and growth patterns of opportunistic versus equilibrium populations. Provide one example of each.
  5. Compare and contrast indirect versus direct values of biodiversity, and provide examples.
  6. Describe two traits that represent a sustainable society and two traits of a non-sustainable society.
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