Human Resources management Practice

Human Resource Management, Global Edition, 13e 

Chapter 7  Training and Development

 1) What percentage of externally hired executives in the private sector fail within the first 18 months?

  1. A) less than 15%
  2. B) over 50%
  3. C) nearly 25%
  4. D) up to 40%

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Although considerable time, effort, and money are spent recruiting top talent, companies often do a poor job of onboarding new executives. As a result, up to 40 percent of externally hired executives in the private sector fail within the first 18 months and many others who are recruited from outside the firm leave within five years.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

2) When an “outsider” CEO is unsuccessful, usually it is because he or she __________.

  1. A) did not understand the company’s products
  2. B) did not understand how to operate in the new culture
  3. C) did not understand the company’s customers
  4. D) did not understand how to respond to government regulators

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Although impossible to calculate precisely, the costs resulting from a failed CEO are usually significant, particularly for an “outsider.” When executives are unsuccessful, usually it is because they did not understand how to operate in the new culture.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

 

3) The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance is referred to as ________.

  1. A) succession planning
  2. B) organizational planning
  3. C) training and development
  4. D) communicating and integrating

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Training and development (T&D) is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance. Succession planning is the process of ensuring that qualified people are being trained for top positions.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

4) The primary purpose of training is to ________.

  1. A) modify inappropriate behaviors
  2. B) offer feedback about job performance
  3. C) provide job-related knowledge and skills
  4. D) supplement high school and college courses

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs. Showing a worker how to operate a lathe is an example of training.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

5) Showing a worker how to operate a bulldozer or an administrative assistant how to schedule appointments are examples of ________.

  1. A) training
  2. B) development
  3. C) morale improvement
  4. D) behavioral development

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs. On the other hand, development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and prepares employees to keep pace with the organization as it changes and grows.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

 

6) Learning that looks beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus is referred to as ________.

  1. A) training
  2. B) instruction
  3. C) development
  4. D) orientation

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and prepares employees to keep pace with the organization as it changes and grows. Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

7) All of the following are most likely strategic benefits of training and development EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) increased morale
  2. B) higher retention rate
  3. C) more employee satisfaction
  4. D) improved orientation programs

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) T&D activities have the potential to align a firm’s employees with its corporate strategies. Some possible strategic benefits of T&D include employee satisfaction, improved morale, higher retention, lower turnover, improved hiring, a better bottom line, and the fact that satisfied employees produce satisfied customers. Orientation programs are less likely to be directly affected by T&D.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

8) What is the primary goal of training and development?

  1. A) improved performance
  2. B) federal compliance
  3. C) efficient orientation
  4. D) behavioral modification

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Improved performance, the bottom-line purpose of T&D, is a strategic goal for organizations. Legal compliance, orientation, and behavioral changes are less directly related to T&D.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

 

9) Firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related training and development and take appropriate action are known as ________ organizations.

  1. A) international
  2. B) profitable
  3. C) strategic
  4. D) learning

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) A learning organization is a firm that recognizes the critical importance of continuous performance-related T&D and takes appropriate action. A learning organization has three basic characteristics: 1) it provides a supportive learning environment, 2) it provides specific learning processes and practices, and 3) the leadership behavior in the organization supports and reinforces learning.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

10) Which of the following is LEAST likely to characterize a learning organization?

  1. A) providing a supportive learning environment
  2. B) offering specific learning processes and practices
  3. C) supporting and reinforcing learning through leadership
  4. D) requiring frequent examinations to ensure quick and accurate learning

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) A learning organization has three basic characteristics: 1) it provides a supportive learning environment, 2) it provides specific learning processes and practices, and 3) the leadership behavior in the organization supports and reinforces learning. Although occasional exams may be necessary, quick learning is not.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

11) Firms listed in the “100 Best Companies to Work for in America” typically emphasize ________.

  1. A) training and development
  2. B) stock options
  3. C) bonuses and benefits
  4. D) piecework

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) In the competition to become listed in the “100 Best Companies to Work for in America,” learning and growth opportunities were a high priority. On nearly every survey, training and development ranks in the top three benefits that employees want from their employers, and they search for firms that will give them the tools to advance in their profession.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

12) According to experts, which of the following has had the most significant impact on how training is conducted?

  1. A) globalization
  2. B) outsourcing
  3. C) internships
  4. D) technology

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Perhaps no factor has influenced T&D more than technology. The computer, Internet, cell phones, and e-mail are dramatically affecting how training is conducted. Globalization has influenced the use of technology in training programs.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  2

AACSB:  Use of IT

13) Dan works for a U.S. accounting firm in its Singapore office. Over the weekend, Dan plans to complete one of the firm’s training courses using his home computer. Which of the following most likely describes the type of training in which Dan is participating?

  1. A) dynamic training
  2. B) static training
  3. C) just-in-time training
  4. D) reinforcement training

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Just-in-time training is training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed. Computer technology, the Internet, and intranets have made these approaches economically feasible to a degree never before possible.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  2

 

 

14) Chelsea Paper Products is a large manufacturer that employs nearly 800 workers. Executives at the company are interested in implementing a training and development program in order to improve employee competencies and enhance the firm’s overall performance. Which of the following most likely supports the plan to establish a training and development program at Chelsea?

  1. A) Firms of similar size typically provide mentors to new employees.
  2. B) The firm has consistently had a high turnover rate in all departments.
  3. C) The firm’s new CEO established a T&D program at a previous firm.
  4. D) Other firms in the paper industry are implementing T&D programs.

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Benefits of T&D programs include lower turnover, improved morale, and a better bottom line. In today’s highly competitive business environment, undertaking a program because other firms are doing it is asking for trouble. A systematic approach to addressing bona fide needs must be undertaken.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Critical Thinking

LO:  2

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

 

15) What is the first step in the training and development process?

  1. A) determine specific T&D needs
  2. B) establish specific T&D objectives
  3. C) select training methods
  4. D) select appropriate media

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Determining specific T&D needs is the first step in the process. Establishing objectives, selecting methods, implementing programs, and evaluating programs are the next steps in the T&D process.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  2

16) In order to be successful, a T&D program needs ________.

  1. A) specialization and standardization
  2. B) top management support
  3. C) pre-recorded lectures
  4. D) input from local colleges and universities

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) For T&D programs to be successful, top management support is required; without it, a T&D program will not succeed. The most effective way to achieve success is for executives to provide the needed resources to support the T&D effort.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  2

 

17) Which of the following is a primary reason for the problem in finding qualified people for manufacturing jobs?

  1. A) The skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are still sufficient.
  2. B) There are few opportunities for learning in-demand technical skills.
  3. C) Outsourcing has caused a generation of young people to doubt the long-term future in manufacturing jobs.
  4. D) Today’s companies are not interested in hiring workers with technical skills.

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Part of the problem in finding qualified people for manufacturing jobs is that there is a generation of young people for which manufacturing has not been an attractive job prospect because they have seen many jobs outsourced and they question the long-term future in these jobs.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  7

 

18) All of the following are analyses used to determine training and development needs EXCEPT a(n) ________.

  1. A) organizational analysis
  2. B) consumer analysis
  3. C) person analysis
  4. D) task analysis

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Organizational, person, and task analyses are conducted to determine the training and development needs of employees. Such analyses are performed as the first step in the T&D process.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  2

19) Suzanne, an HR specialist, is assessing training and development needs at her firm by reviewing job descriptions. Which type of analysis is Suzanne most likely conducting?

  1. A) task analysis
  2. B) person analysis
  3. C) performance analysis
  4. D) organizational analysis

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A)  Job descriptions are important data sources for a task analysis. Organizational analyses review the firm’s strategic goals and plans. Performance appraisals are used when conducting a person analysis.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  2

 

20) Medco Pharmaceuticals uses a number of methods for accommodating differing styles to its workforce. Which of the following terms best describes Medco’s training program?

  1. A) blended training
  2. B) combined training
  3. C) traditional training
  4. D) outsourced training

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Blended training refers to the use of multiple methods for imparting knowledge and skills to the workforce. It involves using a combination of training methods that are strategically combined to best achieve a training program’s objectives.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  2

 

21) What is the T&D delivery system for online instruction?

  1. A) e-learning
  2. B) internships
  3. C) role playing
  4. D) programmed instruction

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) E-learning is the T&D method for online instruction. It takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

22) Any learning that takes place via cell phones, personal digital assistants, media players, and e-readers is called ________.

  1. A) cyber learning (C-learning)
  2. B) mobile learning (M-learning)
  3. C) electronic learning (E-learning)
  4. D) offsite learning (O-learning)

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Mobile learning (M-learning) is any learning that takes place via mobile or portable devices such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, tablets, media players, and e-readers.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

23) Which of the following is NOT true as it regards on-site, instructor-led training?

  1. A) The classroom setting is easily replicated online.
  2. B) The instructor may deliver a great deal of information in a relatively short time.
  3. C) A charismatic instructor may excite the students to want to learn.
  4. D) The classroom setting allows for real-time discussion.

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The instructor-led method, where the instructor physically stands in front of students, continues to be effective for many types of training. One advantage of instructor-led training is that the instructor may convey a great deal of information in a relatively short time. Also, the charisma or personality that the instructor brings to class may excite the students to want to learn. The classroom setting allows for real-time discussion that is not easily replicated, even with the most advanced technology.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

24) A takeoff on e-learning is the ________ that uses a web-based platform to deliver live, instructor-led training to geographically dispersed learners.

  1. A) computer based training
  2. B) virtual instructions
  3. C) live virtual classroom
  4. D) programmed instruction

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) A takeoff on e-learning is the live virtual classroom, often referred to as virtual instructor led, that uses a Web-based platform to deliver live, instructor-led training to geographically dispersed learners. Organizations can bring together entire teams for just an hour or two per week. They can also bring content specialists into the classroom for only the necessary time required.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

25) What is the primary reason that firms use e-learning?

  1. A) employee requests
  2. B) cost savings
  3. C) recruitment
  4. D) ease of use

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The advantages of using e-learning are numerous; however, the biggest advantage is cost savings. Although employees may prefer e-learning to other methods, low costs are the main reason firms offer online courses.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

26) Which T&D method requires trainees to review information about either an actual or a fictional firm and make business decisions based on the information?

  1. A) virtual reality
  2. B) on-the-job training
  3. C) vestibule training
  4. D) case study

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The case study is a T&D method in which trainees study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it. If an actual company is involved, the student would be expected to research the firm to gain a better appreciation of its financial condition and environment.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

27) With the case study method of training and development, students would most likely be expected to ________.

  1. A) research the finances of firms
  2. B) twitter about hiring decisions
  3. C) interview organizational leaders
  4. D) provide computer assisted instruction

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The case study is a T&D method in which trainees study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it. If an actual company is involved, the student would be expected to research the firm to gain a better appreciation of its financial condition and environment.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

28) A T&D method which permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others to show managers how to handle various situations is called ________.

  1. A) sensitivity training
  2. B) role playing
  3. C) behavior modeling
  4. D) computer assisted instruction

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Behavior modeling is a T&D method that permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others. Behavior modeling has been used to train supervisors in such tasks as conducting performance reviews, correcting unacceptable performance, delegating work, improving safety habits, handling discrimination complaints, overcoming resistance to change, orienting new employees, and mediating individuals or groups in conflict.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

29) Which of the following is a social networking learning tool associated with behavior modeling?

  1. A) role playing
  2. B) e-learning
  3. C) blogging
  4. D) spamming

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Social networking has been used as a learning tool involving behavior modeling. “In a corporation, micro-blogging can be a way to augment behavior modeling,” says Sarah Millstein, author of the O’Reilly Radar Report. This works by having a person who excels at a task send out frequent updates about what he or she is doing.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

 

30) At ABC Manufacturing, which of the following tasks is LEAST likely to be taught through the behavior modeling method?

  1. A) conducting performance appraisal reviews
  2. B) handling discrimination complaints
  3. C) improving safety habits
  4. D) writing memos

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) In-basket training would most likely be used to train employees how to handle memos and reports. Behavior modeling has been used to train supervisors in such tasks as conducting performance reviews, correcting unacceptable performance, delegating work, improving safety habits, and handling discrimination complaints.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

31) Employees at Maxwell Enterprises are participating in a training and development program. Participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations. Which type of T&D method is the firm most likely using?

  1. A) coaching
  2. B) job enlarging
  3. C) role playing
  4. D) job rotating

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Role playing is a T&D method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations. Rather than hearing an instructor talk about how to handle a problem or discussing it, they learn by doing.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

 

 

32) Ben is a mid-level manager at a glass manufacturing company, and he has difficulty interviewing job candidates. Which T&D method would most likely be used to help Ben improve his interviewing skills?

  1. A) case study
  2. B) role playing
  3. C) business games
  4. D) in-basket training

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Role playing is a T&D method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations, such as interviewing, communicating, and handling grievances. Case study, business games, and in-basket training are T&D methods that would be less appropriate for improving interviewing skills.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

 

33) Which T&D method is frequently used by restaurant chains to train servers in handling difficult situations, such as angry customers?

  1. A) role playing
  2. B) internships
  3. C) business games
  4. D) vestibule training

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Role playing is a T&D method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations, such as handling customer complaints. Some restaurant chains use role playing to train servers how to deal with difficult situations such as a couple having an argument at the dinner table.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

34) What T&D method permits participants to assume roles such as president, controller, or marketing vice president of two or more similar hypothetical organizations and compete against each other by manipulating selected factors in a particular business situation?

  1. A) business games
  2. B) programmed instructions
  3. C) vestibule training
  4. D) on-the-job training

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Business games is a T&D method that permits participants to assume roles such as president, controller, or marketing vice president of two or more similar hypothetical organizations and compete against each other by manipulating selected factors in a particular business situation. Participants make decisions affecting such factors as price levels, production volumes, and inventory levels.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

35) What T&D method asks participants to manage e-mail messages, memoranda, reports, and telephone messages?

  1. A) in-basket training
  2. B) role playing
  3. C) behavior modeling
  4. D) case study

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) In-basket training is a T&D method in which the participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers, e-mails, texts, memoranda, reports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager’s desk. This form of training has been quite beneficial to help predict performance success in management jobs.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

 

36) Which informal T&D method involves transferring knowledge from an experienced worker to a new employee?

  1. A) business games
  2. B) role playing
  3. C) on-the-job training
  4. D) classroom lecture

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) On-the-job-training is an informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them. The key to this training is to transfer knowledge from a highly skilled and experienced worker to a new employee, while maintaining the productivity of both workers. OJT is used to pass on critical “how to” information to the trainee.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

37) As an informal T&D method, ________ permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them.

  1. A) coaching
  2. B) on-the-job training
  3. C) mentoring
  4. D) in-basket training

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) On-the-job training (OJT) is an informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them. Often OJT will also have a significant impact on personal development.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

 

38) Which training method combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training?

  1. A) apprenticeship training
  2. B) vestibule training
  3. C) role playing
  4. D) job rotation

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Apprenticeship training is a training method that combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training. Such training is common with craft jobs, such as those of plumbers, carpenters, machinists, welders, fabricators, laser operators, electricians, and press brake operators. While in training, the employee earns less than the master craftsperson who is the instructor.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

39) Joseph has recently been hired by a plumbing company. Which training method will most likely be used to train Joseph?

  1. A) apprenticeship training
  2. B) vestibule training
  3. C) role playing
  4. D) internship

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Apprenticeship training is a training method that combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training. Such training is common with craft jobs, such as those of plumbers, carpenters, machinists, welders, fabricators, laser operators, electricians, and press brake operators. While in training, the employee earns less than the master craftsperson who is the instructor.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

40) Which of the following refers to a T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of a firm?

  1. A) training cooperative
  2. B) universal training
  3. C) corporate university
  4. D) learning organization

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) A T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization is referred to as a corporate university. The corporate T&D institution focus is on creating organizational change that involves areas such as company training, employee development, and adult learning. Learning organizations may have corporate universities, but not necessarily.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

41) The example of Hamburger University was used in your text as an example of what type of T&D delivery system?

  1. A) corporate university
  2. B) community colleges
  3. C) online higher education
  4. D) vestibule system

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization is referred to as a corporate university. Hamburger University is the corporate university offered by McDonald’s.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

 

42) For most firms, what is the primary reason for establishing corporate universities?

  1. A) aligning with educational institutions
  2. B) creating organizational change
  3. C) providing e-learning for expatriates
  4. D) offering degrees to employees

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The corporate T&D institution focus is on creating organizational change that involves areas such as company training, employee development, and adult learning. It aims to achieve its goals by conducting activities that foster individual and organizational learning and knowledge.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

43) A key element of success in online higher education is ________.

  1. A) a high score on the Graduate Record Exam
  2. B) government scholarships
  3. C) a brand new computer
  4. D) discipline

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Online higher education is not for everyone and the key to success is discipline. Jeff Seaman of Babson Survey Research Group said, “You need discipline. Otherwise, the ‘anytime, anywhere’ aspect frees you to put off the work.”

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

44) Historically, what has been the primary delivery system for training professional, technical, and management employees?

  1. A) community colleges
  2. B) corporate universities
  3. C) universities and colleges
  4. D) vestibule systems

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) For decades, colleges and universities have been the primary delivery system for training professional, technical, and management employees. Many public and private colleges and universities are taking similar approaches to training and education as have the corporate universities.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

 

45) All of the following are characteristics of community colleges EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) offering associate-degree programs
  2. B) requiring corporate scholarships
  3. C) providing vocational training
  4. D) receiving public funding

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Community colleges are publicly funded higher education establishments that deliver vocational training and associate-degree programs. Some employers have discovered that community colleges can provide certain types of training better and more cost effectively than the company can. Community colleges are fairly inexpensive and do not require scholarships.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

46) Ramon is enrolled in a formal degree program that is delivered entirely through the Internet. Which term best describes Ramon’s degree program?

  1. A) webinar
  2. B) simulator
  3. C) network career site
  4. D) online higher education

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) A form of online e-learning that has increased substantially in recent years, is the use of online higher education. Online higher education, such as through the University of Phoenix, provides formal educational opportunities including degree and training programs that are delivered, either entirely or partially, via the Internet.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

 

47) Janice, a supervisor in a major department store, is considering enrolling at the University of Phoenix to earn an MBA after researching other online higher education programs. Which of the following is Janice LEAST likely to experience if she enrolls at the University of Phoenix?

  1. A) variety of learning opportunities
  2. B) simplified coursework
  3. C) cost and time savings
  4. D) flexible scheduling

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Online higher education allows employees to attend class at lunchtime, during the day, or in the evening. It also saves employees time because it reduces their need to commute to school. It increases the range of learning opportunities for employees and increases employee satisfaction. Although online degrees were once suspected of lacking the academic rigor provided in a traditional classroom, many say that online courses are now more difficult than traditional lecture courses.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

48) Regarding online higher education, all of the following EXCEPT ________ are true.

  1. A) skepticism regarding the quality of online degrees is at an all-time high
  2. B) employees can attend class at lunchtime, during the day, or in the evening
  3. C) it saves employees time because they don’t have to commute to school
  4. D) it increases the range of learning opportunities for employees

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Skepticism regarding the quality of online degrees appears to be fading. John Challenger, chief executive of outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas, agrees. “We did once have a clear line between online and brick-and-mortar degrees, but that’s changing,” he says. “Hiring managers are catching up.”

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

 

49) Lizzie is enrolled in an online higher education program. She may take some classes online and some in a traditional university setting. In which type of program is Lizzie most likely enrolled?

  1. A) virtual instruction program
  2. B) online synchronized study
  3. C) asynchronous learning
  4. D) hybrid program

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Hybrid programs permit students to take some classes online and some in a traditional university setting. Online synchronized study offers students the choice of studying through an online portal system; however, the student is expected to appear for most classes on a real-time schedule. With asynchronous learning, students have a series of assignments that need to be completed in a certain time frame.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

50) Steve is enrolled in an online higher education program. Steve must appear for most classes on a real-time schedule, but he may study through an online portal system. In which type of program is Steve most likely enrolled?

  1. A) hybrid programs
  2. B) cyber programs
  3. C) online synchronized study
  4. D) asynchronous learning

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Online synchronized study offers students the choice of studying through an online portal system; however, the student is expected to appear for most classes on a real-time schedule. Hybrid programs permit students to take some classes online and some in a traditional university setting. With asynchronous learning, students have a series of assignments that need to be completed in a certain time frame.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

 

51) Traci is enrolled in an online higher education program. Traci receives a series of assignments that need to be completed in a fixed time frame. A system exists that allows Traci to communicate with her professor and classmates. Traci is most likely enrolled in a(n) ________.

  1. A) hybrid program
  2. B) asynchronous learning program
  3. C) online synchronized study program
  4. D) cyber program

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) With asynchronous learning, students have a series of assignments that need to be completed in a certain time frame. Online synchronized study offers students the choice of studying through an online portal system; however, the student is expected to appear for most classes on a real-time schedule. Hybrid programs permit students to take some classes online and some in a traditional university setting.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

52) A T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job is called the ________.

  1. A) vestibule system
  2. B) role playing method
  3. C) succession planning system
  4. D) behavior modeling program

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Vestibule system is a T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job. For example, a group of lathes may be located in a training center where the trainees receive instruction in their use.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

 

53) When the vestibule delivery system is used, where does it typically take place?

  1. A) at a video media center
  2. B) on the manufacturing line
  3. C) outside of the production area
  4. D) at a university science laboratory

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Vestibule system is a T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job. For example, a group of lathes may be located in a training center where the trainees receive instruction in their use.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

54) What is the main advantage of using the vestibule system for training and development?

  1. A) models employee behavior
  2. B) reduces employee pressure
  3. C) builds employee teamwork skills
  4. D) allows employees scheduling flexibility

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) A primary advantage of the vestibule system is that it removes the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is focused on learning the skills required by the job.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

55) Which T&D delivery system utilizes devices or programs to replicate actual job demands?

  1. A) in-basket training centers
  2. B) corporate universities
  3. C) vestibule systems
  4. D) simulators

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Simulators are a T&D delivery system comprised of devices or programs that replicate actual job demands. A vestibule system trains workers away from the production site on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job rather than on software programs or computerized devices.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

 

56) The Small Business Administration sponsors ________, which provides free and confidential counseling, mentoring, and advice to small business owners nationwide via its network of retired business executives, leaders, and volunteers.

  1. A) SCORE
  2. B) SBCA
  3. C) SBDC
  4. D) ASTD

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) SCORE is sponsored by the SBA. It provides free and confidential counseling, mentoring and advice to small business owners nationwide via its network of more than 12,400 retired business executives, leaders and volunteers.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

57) What concept consists of all learning experiences resulting in an upgrading of skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial positions?

  1. A) reinforcement development
  2. B) management development
  3. C) organizational development
  4. D) behavioral development

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Management development consists of all learning experiences provided by an organization resulting in upgrading skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial. In today’s rapidly changing business environment, it is extremely important to provide development opportunities for a firm’s management group.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

58) As managers reach higher levels in the organization, it is not so much their ________ skills that that they need, but their ________ skills and their business knowledge.

  1. A) interpersonal; technical
  2. B) communication; financial
  3. C) organizational; observation
  4. D) technical; interpersonal

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) In higher levels of the organization, managers need to hone their interpersonal skills and business knowledge more than their technical skills. A firm’s future lies largely in the hands of its managers. Therefore, it is imperative that managers keep up with the latest developments in their respective fields and, at the same time, manage an ever-changing workforce operating in a dynamic environment.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

59) According to recent studies, all of the following are skills that top leaders in organizations need to improve EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) developing strategic plans
  2. B) encouraging individuality
  3. C) motivating employees
  4. D) thinking creatively

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) A recent study found that almost 70 percent of companies believe that senior executives need to improve their leadership skills. More than half of companies reported their top leaders needing to also improve their strategic planning skills. Several other skills that leaders need are encouraging teamwork, motivating people, and creativity.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

 

60) Which of the following is an approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating a practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development?

  1. A) succession planning
  2. B) strategic planning
  3. C) mentoring
  4. D) training

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Mentoring is an approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating a practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development. Mentors may be anywhere in the organization or even in another firm. For years, mentoring has repeatedly been shown to be the most important factor influencing careers.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

61) Which of the following has historically been the most significant factor to influence careers?

  1. A) mentoring
  2. B) coaching
  3. C) training
  4. D) recruiting

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) For years, mentoring has repeatedly been shown to be the most important factor influencing careers. Most Fortune 500 companies have a mentoring program. Mentors equip protégés to learn for themselves by sharing experiences, asking demanding questions, challenging decision-making and expanding problem-solving skills.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

62) Many mentees use ________ to keep in touch with their mentors via e-mail, Facebook, and Twitter.

  1. A) proctoring
  2. B) e-mentoring
  3. C) virtual classrooms
  4. D) closed-loop communication

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) E-mentoring, or open mentoring, is being used more and more today as opposed to face-to-face interaction with positive results. Many keep in touch with their mentors via e-mail, Facebook, and Twitter, but they may get together for lunch if they happen to be in the same location.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

63) What development method is often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss and provides assistance much like a mentor?

  1. A) coaching
  2. B) vestibule training
  3. C) development
  4. D) behavior modeling

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Coaching is often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss, who provides assistance, much like a mentor, but the primary focus is about performance. Coaching involves helping workers see why they have been selected to perform the task or why they have been selected for the team.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

64) Some believe that having a ________ is essential to make it to the top, and the lack of one may explain the difficulty women and minorities have encountered with the glass ceiling.

  1. A) coach
  2. B) mentor
  3. C) development program
  4. D) succession training program

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Since women and minorities are not equally represented at the firm’s top levels, they may be left without a mentor. Studies show that women, who are mentored, particularly by other women, are more likely to enhance and expand career skills, advance in their careers, receive higher salaries, and enjoy their work more. Women want and need to have advantages provided by mentors to effectively use their talents and realize their potential, not only for their personal benefit but to assist their firms.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity

 

 

65) Gaming Laboratories periodically assigns coaches to its employees. The firm most likely provides coaches to enhance ________.

  1. A) long-term planning
  2. B) team building skills
  3. C) task performance
  4. D) career growth

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Coaching is often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss, who provides assistance, much like a mentor, but the primary focus is about performance. Coaching involves helping workers see why they have been selected to perform the task or why they have been selected for the team.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

66) A process in which older workers learn from younger workers is known as reverse ________.

  1. A) coaching
  2. B) development
  3. C) training
  4. D) mentoring

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Reverse mentoring is a process in which older employees learn from younger ones. There are people in organizations who are approaching retirement who do not want to retire, and who have tremendous knowledge that should not go to waste. There are young people who know things others do not know and who are anxious to expand their horizons. The existence of these two diverse, but potentially mutually helpful, populations has led to reverse mentoring.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

67) Jason has worked for Allstate Insurance as an IT specialist since graduating from college two years ago. George is an upper level manager who has worked for Allstate for twenty years. Jason and George have been paired so that George can learn more about social networking and text messaging from Jason. Which of the following best describes this program?

  1. A) job sharing
  2. B) strategic planning
  3. C) reverse mentoring
  4. D) succession planning

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Reverse mentoring is a process in which older employees learn from younger ones. There are people in organizations who are approaching retirement who do not want to retire, and who have tremendous knowledge that should not go to waste. There are young people who know things others do not know and who are anxious to expand their horizons. The existence of these two diverse, but potentially mutually helpful, populations has led to reverse mentoring.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  4

 

68) Firms most likely implement reverse mentoring programs to ________.

  1. A) discourage the retirement of experienced managers
  2. B) provide job rotation opportunities for minorities
  3. C) understand the needs of young customers
  4. D) address federal hiring requirements

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Reverse mentoring is a process in which older employees learn from younger ones. Firms use such programs to help them understand the changing needs of the younger generation. Reverse mentoring helps executives remain current in vision and strategy.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  4

 

 

69) What is the initial T&D effort for employees that strive to inform new employees about the company, the job, and the workgroup?

  1. A) role playing
  2. B) case study
  3. C) orientation
  4. D) videoconferencing

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Orientation is the initial T&D effort for new employees that inform them about the company, the job, and the work group. A good orientation program is quite important because first impressions are often the most lasting. In fact, new employees usually decide whether or not to stay at a company within their first six months of employment.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  5

70) Shelley has been hired as a marketing specialist at a large, international firm. On Shelley’s first day of work, she attends an orientation session. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be addressed during Shelley’s orientation program?

  1. A) organizational structure
  2. B) company policies and rules
  3. C) compensation and reward system
  4. D) daily and weekly task requirements

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Orientation is the initial T&D effort for new employees that inform them about the company, the job, and the work group. Organizational structure, corporate policies, and compensation are common topics during orientation. An employee’s specific tasks would be addressed during training rather than orientation.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  5

 

 

71) What is the primary purpose of including a socialization program during orientation?

  1. A) explaining employee benefits options
  2. B) reducing anxiety of new employees
  3. C) providing management training
  4. D) initiating team projects

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) To reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, the firm should take steps to integrate them into the informal organization through socialization programs. Some organizations have found that employees subjected to socialization programs, including the topics of politics and career management, perform better than those who have not undergone such training.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  5

 

72) All of the following are reasons for the use of peers during orientation EXCEPT for their ________.

  1. A) accessibility
  2. B) empathy
  3. C) experience
  4. D) benchmarking

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Peers tend to be more accessible and empathic than managers, and they have organizational experience and technical expertise as well. Benchmarking involves monitoring and comparing a firm’s processes, which is irrelevant to orientation.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  5

 

73) Which of the following LEAST likely explains why it is difficult to implement training and development programs at many organizations?

  1. A) Managers are typically action-oriented.
  2. B) Qualified trainers are not available.
  3. C) Scheduling poses problems.
  4. D) Records are unavailable.

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Implementing T&D programs is often difficult because managers are typically action-oriented and feel that they are too busy for T&D. Another difficulty in program implementation is that qualified trainers must be available. It may also be difficult to schedule the training around present work requirements. Another difficulty in implementing T&D programs is record keeping. It is important to maintain training records, including how well employees perform during training and later on the job.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  5

 

74) Which of the following enables firms to measure the effectiveness of training and development programs?

  1. A) record keeping
  2. B) broadbanding
  3. C) recruiting
  4. D) onboarding

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) It is important to maintain training records during T&D programs, including how well employees perform during training and later on the job. This information is important in terms of measuring program effectiveness and charting the employees’ progress in the company.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  5

 

 

75) What form of training and development evaluation is a good way to obtain feedback quickly and inexpensively?

  1. A) benchmarking
  2. B) extent of learning
  3. C) participant’s opinion
  4. D) behavioral change

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Evaluating a T&D program by asking the participants’ opinions of it is an approach that provides a response and suggestions for improvements, essentially a level of customer satisfaction. Although responses are not always reliable, the method is a good way to obtain feedback and to get it quickly and inexpensively.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

76) Which of the following aspects of training and development is most likely measured with a pretest-posttest control group?

  1. A) changes in learner behavior
  2. B) objective accomplishment
  3. C) return on investment
  4. D) extent of learning

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Some organizations administer tests, such as the pretest-posttest, to determine what the participants in a T&D program have learned. Behavior changes, objectives, and returns on investment are less likely to be measured with pretests-posttests.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

77) What is the best indicator that a training and development program was worth the investment?

  1. A) effective recruiting and onboarding
  2. B) long-term behavioral change
  3. C) attentive participants
  4. D) perfect test scores

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The best demonstration of value occurs when learning translates into lasting behavioral change. Tests may accurately indicate what trainees learn, but they give little insight into whether the training leads participants to change their behavior.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

 

78) At Lone Star Construction, accident rates have been high over the last six months, so the owners are providing a training program to employees. The objective of the accident prevention program is to reduce the number and severity of accidents by 15 percent. The firm will compare accident rates before and after training in order to measure the success of the program. This is most likely an example of what level of T&D evaluation?

  1. A) sales commissions
  2. B) mission alignment
  3. C) participant’s opinion
  4. D) accomplishment of T&D objectives

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) One approach to evaluating T&D programs involves determining the extent to which T&D objectives were accomplished. Here metrics address the business’s bottom line, such as productivity data, rather than numbers of training sessions completed or the satisfaction employees gained from a training session. For instance, if the objective of an accident-prevention program is to reduce the number and severity of accidents by 15 percent, comparing accident rates before and after training provides a useful metric of success.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  6

79) When they are considering investments in training programs in today’s global competitive environment, business executives want to see ________.

  1. A) opinions of employees who participate in training
  2. B) the business effects of learning
  3. C) training metrics compiled by the Bureau of Statistical Research
  4. D) opinions of training experts in the blogosphere

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) CEOs want to see training in terms that they can appreciate such as business impact, business alignment, and return on investment (ROI). In today’s global competitive environment, training will not be rewarded with continued investment unless training results in improved performance that impacts the bottom line.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  8

 

 

80) Which T&D evaluation method involves monitoring and measuring a firm’s internal processes, such as operations, and then comparing the data with information from companies that excel in those areas?

  1. A) return on investment
  2. B) benchmarking
  3. C) onboarding
  4. D) behavioral change

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Benchmarking is the process of monitoring and measuring a firm’s internal processes, such as operations, and then comparing the data with information from companies that excel in those areas. Common benchmarking questions focus on metrics such as training costs, the ratio of training staff to employees, and whether new or more traditional delivery systems are used.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

81) Which of the following states: “Employees should receive the training and have the knowledge necessary to do their jobs”?

  1. A) Workforce Investment Act
  2. B) Job Training Partnership Act
  3. C) International Training Partnership Directive
  4. D) ISO 9001 Quality Assurance Training Standards

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) One ISO 9001 quality assurance standard states: “Employees should receive the training and have the knowledge necessary to do their jobs.” In order to comply with the standard, companies must maintain written records of their employee training to show that employees have been properly trained.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

82) Which law replaced the Job Training Partnership Act?

  1. A) Workforce Investment Act
  2. B) School to Work Opportunities Act
  3. C) Employee Assistance Act
  4. D) Work Life Opportunities Act

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) replaced the problem-riddled Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and consolidated more than 70 federal job-training programs. It provides states with the flexibility to develop streamlined systems in partnership with local governments.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

83) All of the following groups are the intended recipients of programs funded by the Workforce Investment Act EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) employers
  2. B) headhunters
  3. C) low-income youth
  4. D) dislocated workers

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) The WIA provides states with the flexibility to develop streamlined systems in partnership with local governments. It provides employment and training services designed to benefit employers, dislocated workers, and low-income youth.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

84) Which current law is designed to meet the needs of business for skilled workers and to satisfy the training, education, and employment needs of individuals?

  1. A) Job Training Partnership Act
  2. B) School to Work Opportunities Act
  3. C) Workforce Investment Act
  4. D) Work Life Opportunities Act

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The WIA provides employment and training services designed to benefit employers, dislocated workers, and low-income youth. A primary focus of WIA is to meet the needs of business for skilled workers and to satisfy the training, education, and employment needs of individuals.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

85) The Workforce Investment Act primarily established one-stop service centers to ________.

  1. A) negotiate with labor unions
  2. B) recruit federal employees
  3. C) provide legal representation
  4. D) offer career counseling

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) One-stop service centers are at the heart of the WIA system. These centers provide job seekers with a range of services, including career counseling, skill assessments, training, job search assistance, and referrals to programs and services, depending on need.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  6

 

86) The planned and systematic attempt to change the organization, typically to a more behavioral environment is referred to as ________.

  1. A) management development
  2. B) vestibule system training
  3. C) organization development
  4. D) on-demand training

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Organization development involves planned and systematic attempts to change the organization, typically to a more behavioral environment. OD education and training strategies are designed to develop a more open, productive, and compatible workplace despite differences in personalities, culture, or technologies.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

87) Organization development is primarily a planned and systematic attempt to ________.

  1. A) strengthen industry standards
  2. B) change the corporate culture
  3. C) diversify management
  4. D) train new recruits

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Organization development involves planned and systematic attempts to change the organization and the corporate culture. OD education and training strategies are designed to develop a more open, productive, and compatible workplace despite differences in personalities, culture, or technologies.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

88) Organization development is implemented to change which of the following?

  1. A) individual employees
  2. B) an entire company
  3. C) a single department
  4. D) quality circles

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Organization development applies to an entire system, such as a company or a plant. Organization development is a major means of achieving change in the corporate culture. Team building and quality circles may be used in organization development, but the main focus is changing an entire firm.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

89) Which of the following is NOT an organization development intervention?

  1. A) quality circles
  2. B) survey feedback
  3. C) team building
  4. D) job enlargement

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Numerous OD interventions are available, such as survey feedback, a technique often combined with other interventions; quality circles; team building; and sensitivity training. Job enlargement helps develop individual workers rather than an organization.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

90) Collecting data from an organization unit through the use of questionnaires and interviews is known as ________.

  1. A) team building
  2. B) quality circles
  3. C) job enrichment
  4. D) survey feedback

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) The organization development method of basing change efforts on the systematic collection and measurement of subordinate’s attitudes through anonymous questionnaires is survey feedback. It enables management teams to help organizations create working environments that lead to better working relationships, greater productivity, and increased profitability.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

91) Groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to identify production problems and recommend solutions are referred to as ________.

  1. A) free agents
  2. B) quality circles
  3. C) niche sites
  4. D) work groups

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Quality circles are groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss their problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective action when authorized to do so. The team’s recommendations are presented to higher-level management for review, and the approved actions are implemented with employee participation.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

92) Which term refers to a conscious effort to develop effective workgroups throughout the organization?

  1. A) benchmarking
  2. B) behavior modeling
  3. C) succession planning
  4. D) team building

Answer:  D

Explanation:  D) Team building is a conscious effort to develop effective work groups and cooperative skills throughout the organization. It helps members diagnose group processes and devise solutions to problems. Effective team building can be the most efficient way to boost morale, employee retention, and company profitability.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

 

93) All of the following are likely outcomes of team building EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) improving employee morale
  2. B) providing survey feedback
  3. C) increasing profitability
  4. D) retaining employees

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Effective team building can be the most efficient way to boost morale, company profitability, and employee retention. Team building and survey feedback are two different organization development methods, but team building does not necessarily provide feedback.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

94) Obtaining ________ requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers.

  1. A) job security
  2. B) transitional security
  3. C) career security
  4. D) personal security

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Career security requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers. Career security results from the ability to perform within a broad range of careers well enough to be marketable in more than one job and to more than one organization.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  8

 

95) As an ongoing process, ________ requires an individual to set career goals and identify the means to achieve them.

  1. A) life-long learning
  2. B) career planning
  3. C) behavioral modeling
  4. D) just-in-time training

Answer:  B

Explanation:  B) Career planning is an ongoing process whereby an individual sets career goals and identifies the means to achieve them. Individuals in today’s job market must truly manage their careers.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  9

 

96) A ________ is a flexible line of movement through which a person may travel during his or her work life.

  1. A) career path
  2. B) series of ups and downs
  3. C) work-life balancing act
  4. D) journey of discovery

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) A career path is a flexible line of movement through which a person may travel during his or her work life. From a worker’s perspective, following a career path may involve weaving from company to company and from position to position as he or she obtains greater knowledge and experience.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Critical Thinking

LO:  10

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

97) As a formal approach used by an organization, ________ ensures that people with the proper qualifications and experiences are available when needed.

  1. A) career planning
  2. B) workforce stabilization
  3. C) career development
  4. D) organizational development

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) Career development is a formal approach used by the organization to ensure that people with the proper qualifications and experiences are available when needed. With career development, the organization identifies paths and activities for individual employees as they develop.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  10

 

98) The network career path is a method of career progression that ________.

  1. A) contains both a vertical sequence of jobs and a series of horizontal opportunities
  2. B) allows for rectilinear moves in pursuit of new challenges
  3. C) allows technically trained employees to be rewarded without moving into management
  4. D) moves workers to a lower level of duties and responsibilities

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) The network career path contains both a vertical sequence of jobs and a series of horizontal opportunities. This path recognizes the interchangeability of experience at certain levels and the need to broaden experience at one level before promotion to a higher level. Often, this approach provides more realistic opportunities for employee development in an organization than does the traditional career path.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  10

 

 

99) The ________ recognizes that technical specialists can and should be allowed to contribute their expertise to a company without having to become managers.

  1. A) alternative career path
  2. B) technical choice
  3. C) dual-career path
  4. D) self-actualization track

Answer:  C

Explanation:  C) The dual-career path recognizes that technical specialists can and should be allowed to contribute their expertise to a company without having to become managers. A dual-career approach is used to encourage and motivate professionals in fields such as engineering, sales, marketing, finance, and human resources. Individuals in these fields can increase their specialized knowledge, contribute to their firms, and be rewarded without entering management.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  10

100) Horton Consulting is considering investing in a telepresence system. How would the firm primarily benefit from such a system?

  1. A) saving time and money traveling to meetings
  2. B) eliminating the need for costly software upgrades
  3. C) minimizing the time it takes to train employees
  4. D) providing variety to employees through job rotation

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A) Team building is a conscious effort to develop effective work groups and cooperative skills throughout the organization. It helps members diagnose group processes and devise solutions to problems. Job descriptions, production needs, and employee training methods are less relevant to the decision to use team building exercises.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  10

 

 

7.2  True/False Questions

 

1) The onboarding process for a new CEO is a one-time event, occurring in the first few days after the CEO comes on board.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The onboarding process for a new CEO should provide a guide to the new corporate culture and its people and personalities. It is not a one-time event that occurs only in the first few days after the CEO comes on board. It is a continuous process that lasts until the new CEO is ready to succeed in the new environment.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

2) Training and development (T&D) is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Training and development (T&D) is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance. Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs. On the other hand, development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

3) Development provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs. On the other hand, development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

4) Showing a worker how to operate a lathe or a supervisor how to schedule daily production are examples of development.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs, such as explaining how to use a lathe. Development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  1

 

5) Although training and development has been shown to improve employee morale and job satisfaction, training and development has no effect on recruitment.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Being recognized as a company that encourages its employees to continue to grow and learn can be a major asset in recruiting. Organizations with a reputation for having a culture of being a learning leader tend to attract more and better-qualified employees.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

6) For T&D programs to be successful, top management support is required.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  For T&D programs to be successful, top management support is required; without it, a T&D program will not succeed. The most effective way to achieve success is for executives to provide the needed resources to support the T&D effort.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  1

 

7) Learning organizations reward employees with enriching jobs, promotions, and compensation, and they typically attract high-quality workers who seek training and development programs.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In a learning organization employees are rewarded for learning and are provided enriched jobs, promotions, and compensation. Organizations with a reputation for having a culture of being a learning leader tend to attract more and better-qualified employees. On nearly every survey, training and development ranks in the top three benefits that employees want from their employers, and they search for firms that will give them the tools to advance in their profession.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  2

8) Rapidly changing technology plays a significant role in how training and development programs are delivered to employees.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Perhaps no factor has influenced T&D more than technology. The Internet, computers, smartphones, text messaging, and e-mail have dramatically affected how training is conducted. Informal instructional delivery methods such as blogs, wikis, and social networks are being used. Even Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter can assist in training.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  2

 

9) Just-in-time training is training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Just-in-time training (on-demand training) is training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed. Computer technology, the Internet, intranets, smartphones, and similar devices have made these approaches economically feasible to a degree never before possible.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  2

 

10) When determining specific training and development needs for individual employees, a firm will most likely conduct a task analysis with data gathered from job descriptions and performance reviews.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A person analysis is implemented to determine individual training needs, and this type of analysis is based on performance appraisals and interviews. A task analysis uses job descriptions to assess the tasks required to achieve the firm’s goals and purposes.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

11) The case study is a T&D method that permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others to show managers how to handle various situations.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Behavior modeling is a T&D method that permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others. The case study is a T&D method in which trainees study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

12) In role playing, participants respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Role playing is a T&D method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations. Rather than hearing an instructor talk about how to handle a problem or discussing it, they learn by doing.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

 

13) When participating in role playing activities for training and development purposes, employees act as top executives, compete with other groups, and manipulate factors such as price levels and production volume.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Business games is a T&D method that permits participants to assume roles such as president, controller, or marketing vice president of two or more similar hypothetical organizations and compete against each other by manipulating selected factors in a particular business situation. Participants make decisions affecting such factors as price levels, production volumes, and inventory levels.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

14) On-the-job training (OJT) is an informal approach to training that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  On-the-job training (OJT) is an informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them. The key to this training is to transfer knowledge from a highly skilled and experienced worker to a new employee, while maintaining the productivity of both workers.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

15) The key to on-the-job training is to transfer knowledge from a highly skilled and experienced worker to a new employee, while maintaining the productivity of both workers.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The key to OJT is to transfer knowledge from a highly skilled and experienced worker to a new employee, while maintaining the productivity of both workers. OJT is used to pass on critical “how to” information to the trainee. Individuals may also be more highly motivated to learn because it is clear to them that they are acquiring the knowledge needed to perform the job.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

16) In-basket training is primarily used to train administrative assistants how to use office equipment.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In-basket training is a T&D method in which the participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers, e-mails, texts, memoranda, reports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager’s desk. The messages, presented in no particular order, call for anything from urgent action to routine handling by a manager rather than an administrative assistant.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

17) Improving performance is the primary focus of mentoring.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Mentoring is an approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing for creating a practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

18) E-learning is the T&D method for online instruction using technology based methods such as the Internet, intranet, and CD-ROM.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  E-learning is the T&D method for online instruction using technology based methods such as the Internet, intranet, and CD-ROM. The benefits of e-learning are numerous and include decreased costs, greater convenience and flexibility, improved retention rates, and a positive environmental impact.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

19) Although apprenticeships were once used to train workers in craft jobs, advancements in technology have virtually eliminated the need for apprenticeships today.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The National Association of Manufacturers projects that by 2020 some 10 million skilled workers will be needed, and apprenticeships remain one of the most vital sources for new talent in manufacturing despite changes in technology. Such training is common with craft jobs, such as those of plumbers, carpenters, machinists, welders, fabricators, laser operators, electricians, and press brake operators.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

20) A T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization is referred to as online higher education.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization is referred to as a corporate university. The corporate T&D institution focus is on creating organizational change that involves areas such as company training, employee development, and adult learning. Online higher education is defined as formal educational opportunities including degree and training programs that are delivered, either entirely or partially, via the Internet.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

21) The use of a corporate university is proactive and strategic rather than reactive and tactical and can be closely aligned to corporate goals.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A corporate university is focused on creating organizational change in areas such as company training, employee development, and adult learning. It aims to achieve its goals by conducting activities that foster individual and organizational learning and knowledge. It is proactive and strategic rather than reactive and tactical and can be closely aligned to corporate goals.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

22) Interest in online higher education has sharply declined in recent years due to the lack of academic rigor associated with most programs.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A form of online e-learning that has increased substantially in recent years, is the use of online higher education. One reason for the growth of online higher education is that it allows employees to attend class at lunchtime, during the day, or in the evening. The days are gone when online degrees were suspected of lacking the academic rigor provided in a traditional classroom. Many say that online courses are more difficult than traditional lecture courses.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

 

23) Degree plans offered by online universities, such as the University of Phoenix, are limited to associate’s degrees because of the lack of certification.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The University of Phoenix has the largest student body in North America with an enrollment of 420,700 undergraduate students and 78,000 graduate students. The university has more than 200 campuses worldwide and confers degrees in over 100 degree programs.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

24) Hybrid programs permit students to take some classes online and some in a traditional university setting.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Hybrid programs permit students to take some classes online and some in a traditional university setting. Online synchronized study offers students the choice of studying through an online portal system; however, the student is expected to appear for most classes on a real-time schedule.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

25) With online synchronized study, students have a series of assignments that need to be completed in a certain time frame.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  With asynchronous learning, students have a series of assignments that need to be completed in a certain time frame. A system is available that allows students to communicate with professor and classmates. Key to succeeding in an asynchronous learning environment is that the student must be motivated to learn.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

26) The main advantage of the vestibule system is that employees can focus on learning the skills needed for the job without the pressure of having to maintain a specific production level.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Vestibule system is a T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job. A primary advantage of the vestibule system is that it removes the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is focused on learning the skills required by the job.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

27) Using DVDs to train employees is uncommon because so many inexpensive and technologically advanced training delivery systems are available to businesses.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The use of video media such as DVDs, videotapes, and film clips continues to be a popular T&D delivery system. These media are especially appealing to small businesses that cannot afford more expensive training methods and are often incorporated in e-learning and instructor-led instruction.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

28) Simulators are training and delivery systems commonly used for training airline pilots.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Simulators are a T&D delivery system comprised of devices or programs that replicate actual job demands. A prime example is the use of simulators to train airline pilots; simulated crashes do not cost lives or deplete the firm’s fleet of jets.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

29) The traditional lecture model of learning is the premise behind the educational success of social networking.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The premise behind the educational success of social networking is the learning approach referred to as constructivism. A constructivist learning environment differs from the traditional model. In this setting, the teacher guides the learner toward multiple learning sources, rather than acting as the sole source of knowledge.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  3

 

30) Organizational development consists of all learning experiences provided by an organization resulting in an upgrading of skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial positions.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Organization development is the planned and systematic attempt to change the organization, typically to a more behavioral environment. Management development consists of all learning experiences provided by an organization resulting in upgrading skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial positions.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

31) Mentoring is an approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating a practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Mentoring is an approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating a practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development. Mentors may be anywhere in the organization or even in another firm. For years, mentoring has repeatedly been shown to be the most important factor influencing careers.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

32) Since e-mentoring fails to yield positive outcomes, most firms choose to continue using the traditional mentoring techniques.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  E-mentoring is being used more often as opposed to face-to-face interaction and is yielding positive outcomes.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

AACSB:  Use of IT

 

33) Reverse mentoring is a process in which the older employees learn from the younger ones.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Reverse mentoring is a process in which older employees learn from younger ones, primarily in the area of technology. Numerous firms have implemented reverse mentoring programs so that the two populations can share knowledge.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  4

 

34) During orientation, employees typically learn about the firm and how their job fits into the firm’s organizational structure and goals.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Orientation is the initial T&D effort for new employees that inform them about the company, the job, and the work group. At an early point in time, it is helpful for the new employee to know how his or her job fits into the firm’s organizational structure and goals.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  5

 

 

35) Quality circles are groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss their problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective action when authorized to do so.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Quality circles are groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss their problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective action when authorized to do so. The team’s recommendations are presented to higher-level management for review, and the approved actions are implemented with employee participation.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

36) Career planning is a general course that a person chooses to pursue throughout his or her working life.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A career is a general course that a person chooses to pursue throughout his or her working life. Career planning is an ongoing process whereby an individual sets career goals and identifies the means to achieve them.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  9

 

37) Career security implies security in one job, often with one company.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Job security implies security in one job, often with one company. Career security is distinctly different from job security; it requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers.

Diff: 1

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  8

 

38) Orientation is the organization development method of basing change efforts on the systematic collection and measurement of subordinate’s attitudes through anonymous questionnaires.

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Survey feedback is the organization development method of basing change efforts on the systematic collection and measurement of subordinate’s attitudes through anonymous questionnaires.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  7

 

39) Team building is a conscious effort to develop effective work groups and cooperative skills throughout the organization.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Team building is a conscious effort to develop effective work groups and cooperative skills throughout the organization. It helps members diagnose group processes and devise solutions to problems.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  7

40) The lateral skill path allows for lateral moves within the firm, taken to permit an employee to become revitalized and find new challenges.

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The lateral skill path allows for lateral moves within the firm, taken to permit an employee to become revitalized and find new challenges. Neither pay nor promotion may be involved, but by learning a different job, an employee can increase his or her value to the organization and also become rejuvenated and reenergized.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  10

 

 

7.3  Essay Questions

 

1) Consider the following: Up to 40 percent of externally hired private sector executives fail within the first 18 months and many others that are recruited from the outside leave within five years. Discuss how inadequate onboarding of new executives can contribute to these outcomes.

Answer:  Although impossible to calculate precisely, the costs resulting from a failed CEO are usually significant, particularly for an “outsider.” Considerable time, effort, and money are spent recruiting top talent; however, companies often do a poor job of onboarding new executives. In fact, few companies take the time to familiarize new executives about the workings of the corporate culture beyond the standard, one-size-fits-all orientation session. However, what new executives need to know in order to be effective differs significantly from the focus of most general employee orientation programs. If an executive is coming in from another company, a great deal of attention needs to be paid to explaining how things really work in the new environment. For example, to succeed, new executives must understand the unwritten rules, processes, and networks that influence how things get done in the organization. Too often, they are just given the key to the executive suite and are expected to sink or swim. That approach will not work if an organization is searching for ways to help these new executives succeed.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Critical Thinking

LO:  1

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

2) What is strategic training and development? What impact has technology had on training and development programs?

Answer:  Training and development (T&D) is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance. Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs. On the other hand, development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus. The computer, Internet, BlackBerrys, cell phones, text messaging, and e-mail are dramatically affecting how training is conducted. Technology has played a huge role in changing the way knowledge is delivered to employees, and this change is constantly being extended. For example, just-in-time training (on-demand training) is training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed. Computer technology, the Internet, and intranets have made these approaches economically feasible to a degree never before possible. The ability to deliver knowledge to employees on an as-needed basis, anywhere on the globe, and at a pace consistent with their learning styles, greatly enhances the value of T&D. Online higher education is defined as formal educational opportunities including degree and training programs that are delivered, either entirely or partially, via the Internet. One reason for the growth of online higher education is that it allows employees to attend class at lunchtime, during the day, or in the evening.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Synthesis

LO:  1, 2, 3

 

 

3) What are the steps in the training and development process? Why is implementing a training and development program frequently difficult?

Answer:  The first step in the T&D is to determine a firm’s specific training needs. Then specific objectives need to be established. After setting the T&D objectives, management can determine the appropriate methods and the delivery system to be used. Implementing and evaluating the T&D program occurs next in the process. Naturally, management must continuously evaluate T&D to ensure its value in achieving organizational objective. Implementing training programs presents unique problems. Training implies change, which employees may vigorously resist. It may also be difficult to schedule the training around present work requirements. Unless the employee is new to the firm, he or she undoubtedly has specific full-time duties to perform. Another difficulty in implementing T&D programs is record keeping. It is important to maintain training records, including how well employees perform during training and later on the job.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Synthesis

LO:  3, 5

4) What is behavior modeling? What tools and delivery systems are available to firms that use behavior modeling for training and development purposes?

Answer:  Behavior modeling is a T&D method that permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others. Behavior modeling has been used to train supervisors in such tasks as conducting performance reviews, correcting unacceptable performance, delegating work, improving safety habits, handling discrimination complaints, overcoming resistance to change, orienting new employees, and mediating individuals or groups in conflict.

 

Social networking has been used as a learning tool involving behavior modeling. A person who excels at a task sends out frequent updates about what he or she is doing. The company might formalize the process to the extent that it would select exemplary performers to post regularly, and pick those who should follow their posts. Behavior modeling has also long been a successful training method that uses video media.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Synthesis

LO:  3

 

5) What is the purpose of a corporate university?

Answer:  A T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization is referred to as a corporate university. The corporate T&D institution focus is on creating organizational change that involves areas such as company training, employee development, and adult learning. It aims to achieve its goals by conducting activities that foster individual and organizational learning and knowledge. It is proactive and strategic rather than reactive and tactical and can be closely aligned to corporate goals.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Synthesis

LO:  3

 

6) In a brief essay, contrast the goals of training and development with those of organization development.

Answer:  Training and development is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance. Training provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs, while development involves learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus. T&D activities have the potential to align a firm’s employees with its corporate strategies. Some possible strategic benefits of T&D include employee satisfaction, improved morale, higher retention, lower turnover, improved hiring, a better bottom line, and the fact that satisfied employees produce satisfied customers. Individuals and groups receive the bulk of T&D effort. However, some firms believe that to achieve needed change, they must move the entire organization in a different direction. Efforts to achieve this are the focus of organization development, which is the planned and systematic attempt to change the organization. OD education and training strategies are designed to develop a more open, productive, and compatible workplace despite differences in personalities, culture, or technologies.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Synthesis

LO:  7

7) What is a career? What is career planning?

Answer:  A career is a general course that a person chooses to pursue throughout his or her working life. Historically, a career was a sequence of work-related positions an individual occupied during a lifetime, although not always with the same company. However, today there are few relatively static jobs.

 

Career planning is an ongoing process whereby an individual sets career goals and identifies the means to achieve them. Individuals in today’s job market must truly manage their careers. Career planning should not concentrate only on advancement opportunities, since the present work environment has reduced many of these opportunities. At some point, career planning should focus on achieving successes that do not necessarily entail promotions.

 

Historically, it was thought that career planning was logical, linear, and indeed, planned. Today, a new job assignment often is thought of as being paid to learn a new task and increase your experience level in case you must leave your job. Because of the many changes that are occurring, career planning is essential for survival for individuals and organizations. Individuals should have a strategy or plan for unexpected career events that begins while they are still employed.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Concept

LO:  9

 

 

8) In a brief essay, discuss the importance of orientation and mentoring for new employees.

Answer:  Orientation is the initial T&D effort for new employees that inform them about the company, the job, and the work group. A good orientation program is quite important because first impressions are often the most lasting. In fact, new employees usually decide whether or not to stay at a company within their first six months of employment. Orientation programs give organizations an opportunity to get the relationship off to a good start. Mentoring is an approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating a practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development. Mentors may be anywhere in the organization or even in another firm. Mentoring focuses on skills to develop protégés to perform to their highest potential, leading to career advancement. Mentors have the potential to help mentees discover their strengths and weaknesses, formulate a career path, set goals, manage stress, and balance work and personal obligations.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Synthesis

LO:  4, 5

9) How is role playing used as a training and development method? What particular skills can be taught through role playing?

Answer:  Role playing is a T&D method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations. Role playing is often used to teach such skills as disciplinary action, interviewing, grievance handling, conducting performance-appraisal reviews, team problem solving, effective communication, and leadership-style analysis. It has also been used successfully to teach workers how to deal with individuals who are angry, irate, or out of control.

Diff: 3

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  3

 

 

10) Compare and discuss the terms “job security” and “career security.”

Answer:  In the past, most people remained with one company and career for the majority of their adult years. The term job security implies security in one job, often with one company. Historically, this type of security depended on an employee doing a good job and keeping out of trouble. But, for most workers today, this assumption is not valid. Today, there is no such thing as job security even if you worked at your job for many years. Today’s employees will work for approximately nine companies during their careers, and on average, individuals will change careers (not merely “jobs”) three times in their life. The old social contract between employers and employees no longer exists. The country has largely become a free-agent nation, in which employees are no more loyal to companies than companies are to employees.

 

Career security is distinctly different from job security; it requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers. Career security results from the ability to perform within a broad range of careers well enough to be marketable in more than one job and to more than one organization. With career security, workers are given opportunities to improve their skills, and thus their employability in an ever-changing work environment. Employees owe the company their commitment while employed and the company owes its workers the opportunity to learn new skills, but that is as far as the commitment goes. Loyalty in either direction is not expected. Security comes from employability rather than paternal protection.

Diff: 2

Chapter:  7

Skill:  Application

LO:  8

 
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