environmental economics

write 1 page (double space) answer to each question.

1) Norgaard discusses “ways of knowing, forms of social organizations and types of technologies.”  What changes have occurred in society, the US and globally, in the last century that have causes society to begin to be concerned with environmental issues? Why might these be thought of as new challenges to human society?


2) Discuss the seeming duality between the concepts of “extraction” and “preservation.”  Focusing on Norgaard’s coevolution theory, explain that a middle ground may actually be more beneficial for both humans and ecosystems.


3) Select a complex environmental issue (Verde River or a specific issue with climate change for example)  and briefly outline or map the various issues that need to be addressed when considering the net present benefit of a policy. 


4) Discuss how the “total willingness to pay” value can be determined by looking at different ways of valuing resources. Be precise and use examples. 


5) Discuss each of the methods of valuing in Table 3.1 

TALE 3.1 Economic Methods for Measuring Environmental and Resource Values


Revealed Preferences

Stated Preferences


Market price

Contingent valuation


Simulated markets



Travel cost

Attribute-bassed models


Hedonic property values

Conjoint analysis


Hedonic wage values

Choice experiments



Contingent ranking


6) Explain the aspects of the Charles II Proclamation and how they have led to modern day policies. How do the concepts of trespass and nuisance fit into these policies?


7) Boulding explains that consumption and production might not always be considered “good.” How do you think Boulding would analyze the Anishnabai concept of sustainable development?




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