Constructive criticism posts Essay Help

comment the following posts
These are the three posts that you are to comment with constructive criticism. Each should be between 150-200 words.

First Post:

According to the Southeast Florida Regional Compact Climate Action Plan, the sea level will rise 6 to 10 inches by 2030, 14 to 26 inches by 2060 and 31 to 61 inches by 2100. This trend will lead to
increased flooding along the South Florida coast as well as many inland areas, which can be seen even now if you ever drive down A1A during a storm. With the eight most populous metropolitan area
in the United States, we have much more at risk here in South Florida than any other state in regards to sea level rise. According to the BBC Report "Miami’s fight against rising
seas" by Amanda Ruggeri, "current projections put between $15 billion and $23 billion of existing Florida property underwater by 2050. By the end of the century, that leaps to
between $53 and $208 billion." (Ruggeri, 2017, pg. 1) The pace of the sea level rise is steadily increasing as well, leading to additional problems of flooding from the ocean. The reason
the flooding is considered so dangerous in the long term besides its effects on buildings is its effect on our population’s drinking water. According to Ruggeri, "nearly 90 percent of the
drinking water in south Florida comes from aquifers, and these are finding their fresh water pushed further and further inland as the salt water exerts more and more pressure." (Ruggeri,
2017, pg. 1) The cities of South Florida have been built on porous limestone, which is incredibly susceptible during periods of flooding. Many of our freshwater wells have been breached by
seawater, with Hallandale beach suffering from five of their eight freshwater wells being breached. Erosion of sand and the removal of mangrove forests continue to exacerbate floods while the man
made canals tend to make the problem worse.
While the Federal and State government continue to fight amongst themselves regarding the reality of climate change or the responses to its negative trends, the local communities have stepped up to
combat the rising sea levels. One response is to simply mandate that new buildings by raised at approximately 17 to 20 feet above sea level on the coast. Having these higher floors of buildings
would immediately negate some flooding issues from its inhabitants while long term solutions are achieved to combat the flooding itself. This will most likely be difficult to impose on current
construction, which is plentiful in the booming downtown and beach front areas yet is something that should be taken seriously going forward. Increasing the mandatory height of sea walls is an
expensive yet quality way of deterring flooding. The issue becomes the compulsory cost this would incur upon residents as a sea wall is an expensive endeavor which isn’t ideal for the poorest
amongst us, whose number is slowly increasing in South Florida. The development and introduction of new valves which allow storm water through but not saltwater are also an option which has
currently been taken by officials across the cities. The issue here becomes the long term cost of the valves and their maintenance as well as the fact that many areas are still too low which
prevents them from draining.

These efforts seek to offset the impact of the floods themselves. What will be needed is to combat the cause of the floods through reducing the carbon emissions in South Florida. With more and more
officials taking notice of the severity of climate change and its impact on sea level rise, these efforts are being taken more seriously. According to Brittany Wallman’s article for the Sun
Sentinel, "South Florida continues prep for sea level rise", "Broward county inventoried greenhouse gas emissions… and set a target to reduce them 80 percent below the
2007 level by 2050. Monroe County plans to reduce emissions by 15 percent." (Wallman, 2017, pg. 1) By keeping green planning a priority for future projects, leaders can begin the process
of reversing detrimental emissions one step at a time and set the stage for creating a new South Florida which is more self sufficient, environmentally protected, and environmentally friendly.
However, this relies on public and private money to jump start innovations and invest in numerous improvements and projects which is often a hard sell for the public. Additionally, and more
importantly, these efforts take time which is also something many in the public do not recognize. The problems of sea level rise may have occurred rapidly but the solutions needed to offset its
impacts and reverse its causes will take political and public willpower and a commitment from everyone involved to ensure that this gets done. If we were able to make South Florida habitable in the
first place then we surely can keep it habitable for future generations.
Ruggeri, Amanda. "Miami’s fight against rising seas." BBC (2017). Web. 4 April 2017.
Wallman, Brittany. "South Florida continues prep for sea level rise." SunSentinal (2017). Web. 24 February 2017.
Second post:
According to the Unified Sea Level Projection report done by the Sea Level Rise Work Group in October of 2015, there are three levels of projections of the rate of sea level rise in South Florida.
These levels are in the short term, which shows the projected sea level rise by the year 2030, the medium term, which shows the projected sea level rise by the year 2060, and the long term, which
shows the projected sea level rise by the year 2100. In the short term, the sea level in South Florida is projected to rise between 6 and 12 inches past the 1992 mean sea level. In the medium term,
the sea level in South Florida is projected to rise between 14 and 34 inches past the 1992 mean sea level. Finally, in the long term, sea level in South Florida is projected to rise between 31 and
81 inches past the 1992 mean sea level. (SLR 2015) An updated projection by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration published in the year 2017 hypothesizes that sea levels could
actually rise as much as 98 inches by the year 2100 when the increased rate of the melting of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland is taken into account. (NOAA 2017)
Possibly the most harmful impacts that sea level rise would have on humans in South Florida are the negative effects that the rise in water level would have on our drinking water. The first is that
sea level rise would cause an increased level of salt water intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer, which is one of South Florida’s main sources of fresh water. This can disrupt the amount of fresh
water that is available to Floridians, as well as increasing the price of water as it has to be imported from somewhere else. (Sanborn 2013) Flooding from sea level rise can also cause a buildup of
nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in freshwater from agricultural runoff, which can cause increased algal blooms and have negative effects on human health. (EPA 2016) Finally, sea level
rise can cause soil saturation, which can cause an increase in pressure on pipes which can damage the pipes and expose the water inside to pathogens. (Hudak et al 2000) According to a report
published in the International Journal of Environmental Research, ingesting water that has been affected by either of these can result in heart defects because of the ingestion of toxins from
runoff, as well as causing dehydration and gastrointestinal problems from ingesting waterborne pathogens that may have gotten into damaged pipes. (Gutierrez et al 2016)
Sea level rise can also have an impact on native plants such as sawgrass and mangroves through coastal squeeze, when plants in an ecosystem can not move to areas that are drier or that have
shallower water. This can kill off the plants, as less light can filter through deeper water to photosynthesize shallow water plants, as well as because roots that are not usually completely
submerged in water will not be able to pull oxygen from the water. (Gray 2013) This can reduce biodiversity in South Florida ecosystems, as communities such as saltmarshes, seagrass meadows, and
mangrove areas might be lost if the water level continues to rise.
According to a study done by the Scripps Institution for Oceanography, Climate Central, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, sea level rise can be slowed by cutting down on the
emissions of four main pollutants: methane, black carbon, hydrofluorocarbons, and tropospheric ozone. It is projected that cutting the emissions by 30 to 60 percent worldwide could reduce the rate
of global warming by fifty percent by the year 2050, which could in turn reduce sea level rise by 22 to 42 percent by the year 2100. (Oskin 2013) I believe that this would be an effective response
because there is currently controversy on reducing carbon dioxide emissions, which is the main greenhouse gas that affects the rate of global warming. Making small emission reductions across
several different emission types would be less controversial than making drastic cuts of a single emission that is more widely used.
Furthermore, emissions in these categories could be reduced with seemingly small changes. For example, black carbon emissions can be reduced by replacing older or retrofitting current residential
wood combustion heaters. (EPA 2016) Hydrofluorocarbon emissions can be reduced by replacing refrigerants made up of hydrofluorocarbons with refrigerants made up of hydrocarbon, as hydrocarbons have
a low global warming potential as well as a zero ozone depletion potential. (Johnston et al 2016) Tropospheric ozone emissions can be reduced by replacing gas nozzles at gas stations with vapor
recovery nozzles. (EPA 2017) Finally, methane emissions can be reduced by up to 70 percent if seaweed is added to two percent of sheep and cattle feed. (Crew 2016)

Third post

In a mere 49 years it is projected that only 72% of current land surface will remain after only 2 feet of sea level rise (Peter Harlem, 2008). In Miami Dade, this rise would displace 25,192 homes,
and 47,351 people. The encroaching of seawater would take 16.33 billion dollars in property and cover 134 miles of roadways. By 2084 sea level rise could reach 3 feet, more than doubling loss of
homes to 71,702, and people displaced to 128,548. Three feet in sea level rise would leave only 62% of land, even more modest projections show that sea level rise jeopardizes all coastal cities.
However, the Miami-Dade area alone has more people that live less than 4 feet above sea level than any other state in the country besides Louisiana (Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flood Risk (2014).
Retrieved from http://ssrf.climatecentral.org/#location=FL_County_12086&state=Florida&level=3&folder=All&geo=County&pt=t&target=&p=L. While
67 years in the future may be hard to visualize, taking a look at the annual “king tide” that causes flooding in Miami Beach and other coastal cities gives a good idea of what’s likely to come.
In January of this year the city of Miami Beach presented its 100 million dollar plan to help prevent flooding in the next 40 years due to sea level rise. This project aims to raise
roads and install pumps that would prevent street flooding. This plan also encompasses renovating sewer connections. While this plan may benefit Miami Beach, the $100 million project only tackles a
small portion of mid beach between La Gorge Island and Surprise Lake which are connected by Alton road. While the project does address potential flooding in a small part of Miami Beach, it also
puts homes in risk, as a heightened road would disrupt the water drainage system that allows waters from homes to drain onto the road; raising the road two feet as planned would cause the opposite
to occur (Joey Flechas, 2017). This type of solution only offers to alleviate issues that will arise in the next decade, however in order to prepare for the 2-3 feet of sea level rise much larger
changes need to be made. Unfortunately, even if fossil fuels were eliminated today there would still be a continuation of warming for another three decades or so (Harold R. Wanless, 2014). Facing
the undeniable fact that fossil fuels are not going anywhere anytime soon, big picture approaches and plans need to be drawn up and started as soon as possible. This includes moving important
documents, nuclear power plants, military bases, and other important structures out of the zones likely to be flooded (Kaufui Vincent Wong, 2015).
Recognizing the loss of land is the most likely outcome, I think that planning to either adapt to a living above water or migrating inward are the most realistic options. Building a city that sits
above water similar to those in Myanmar and Thailand, is more than possible model with our current technology (Solomon et al. 2007). Investing in a way to continue to live in the area presents many
issues such as electricity, plumbing, and other modern amenities. However, reengineering the way we live could prove to be beneficial, eliminating many of the wasteful and environmentally damaging
comforts we have become accustomed to. The other option would be to move inward, either inhabiting new states or increasing the population density of inland Florida. In addition to relocation
planning, natural disaster planning should be taken seriously. Hurricane damage has cost Florida cities billions in damage and repairs, and with the likely increase in hurricane activity due to
changes in climate, storm surges and wind damage need to be addressed. This involves building from now and into the future that utilizes storm ready technology.
It is imperative to consider the long term changes that the coast will be faced with in order to avoid catastrophe. Careful planning and fast implementation in the areas that are at the highest
risk could involve many approaches. Unfortunately for south Florida, levees and dikes cannot be used because of the geography which is too soft and porous (Harold R. Wanless, 2014). The current
approach of adding in pumps and raising roads is of value and will help to extend the livability of Miami Beach but again, are not long term solutions. Slowing down the rate of sea level rise, if
not tackled immediately, is likely impossible. With sea level rise caught in a positive loop of ice melt and rise, the potential that waters will stop rising is out of view. In conclusion I think
that preparing for the most likely and worst situation in conjunction with aiming to greatly reduce fossil fuel emissions is the best approach. This involves wither planning to rebuild cities that
lie above the water, or a way to relocate people inland. Another important aspect of planning should involve structures that can withstand increases in natural disaster such as hurricanes and
flooding.

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